September 8, 2000


Northern Hayward Fault: Just How Dangerous Is it?

From Olympic Dreams To Mapping Drosophila

Northern Hayward Fault: Just How Dangerous Is it?

By Paul Preuss

As illustrated above in this aerial shot of the campus and Berkeley Hills, the Hayward Fault runs along the east side of campus and right through - and under - the California Memorial Stadium. Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt

Last Sunday's earthquake in Napa County, which caused extensive damage and injury in areas underlain by old river silts, had a magnitude of only 5.2. It occurred on a previously unknown fault closely parallel to the Rodgers Creek Fault, which is thought to be the extension of the Hayward Fault north of San Pablo Bay.

As recently as 10 years ago, the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities concluded that the odds were better than even that in 30 years or less an earthquake of magnitude 7 or larger would occur along the Hayward Fault, which runs through the major cities of the East Bay. Such a disaster could cost thousands of lives and many millions of dollars.

Now a new study, published on Aug. 18 in Science magazine by researchers from UC Berkeley and Berkeley Lab's Earth Sciences Division, concludes that the earthquake potential along the northern Hayward Fault "might be less than previously thought."

The strain that builds up along major faults can be relieved either by creep, which can't be felt but can be detected -- or, if the fault locks up until strain grows too great, by large earthquakes. In 1868 the southern Hayward Fault ruptured from Fremont to Berkeley in an earthquake estimated at magnitude 7.0 -- so destructive that before 1906 it was known as "the Big One." Since 1868, the southern Hayward Fault has been firmly locked at depth and creeping only slowly at the surface.

Geological evidence suggests that north of Berkeley the last Big One occurred much earlier, sometime between the mid-1600s and the arrival of Spanish colonists in the Bay Area in 1776.

Whether or not the northern section of the fault is locked has much to do with when and where the next big quake is likely to occur and how powerful it is likely to be.

A strong earthquake estimated at magnitude 7 occurred the morning of Oct. 21, 1868, centered on the southern segment of the Hayward fault. Destruction was greatest in Hayward (top) where almost every building was damaged, wrecked, or thrown off its foundation. Structures throughout the Bay Area were damaged, including buildings in San Leandro (bottom) and San Francisco.
"If you add up the slippage of all the faults in the region, from the San Andreas in the west to the Greenville Fault on the edge of the Central Valley, there is a deficit in the amount the northern Hayward Fault is slipping," says Robert Nadeau of Berkeley Lab's Earth Sciences Division and a researcher in the Seismological Laboratory at UC Berkeley. "In the long term, the fault slips at about 10 millimeters a year, but surface creep presently averages only about half that."

To some seismologists, the deficit suggests that the Hayward Fault has stored an enormous amount of energy and is on the verge of catastrophic release.

"This is a `worst case' estimate," says Nadeau, "based on a model that assumes the fault is creeping on the surface but locked at depth. But the data previously available couldn't discriminate between that model and one in which the fault is creeping all the way down."

While the model used in the past to estimate high earthquake probability on the northern Hayward Fault is sophisticated, the data is not robust. Dependable ground-based instruments are sparse; accurately surveyed alignment arrays, for example, are spaced more than 10 kilometers apart.

To improve the estimates, Roland Bürgmann, an assistant professor of geology at UC Berkeley, decided to integrate traditional measurements with space-based measurements such as interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Nadeau and Thomas McEvilly, who is also with the Lab's Earth Sciences Division and Professor Emeritus in UC Berkeley's Department of Geology and Geophysics, offered to provide Bürgmann with a different perspective on the problem -- one that opens a window on fault activity kilometers beneath the surface.

Techniques from Parkfield

For many years McEvilly and Nadeau and their colleagues have studied the San Andreas Fault near Parkfield, a tiny ranching community 165 miles south of San Francisco. There they developed a technique of comparing the timing of identical repeating "microquakes" with slippage events deep underground, whose foci and energy could be accurately pinpointed by a network of seismometers at the bottom of boreholes (see Currents, Aug. 13, 1999).

Borehole data for the Hayward Fault wasn't yet available when Burgmann's study was being prepared, says Nadeau, "so we couldn't get the very rapidly repeating small quakes that would give us the best time resolution. Nevertheless larger repeating quakes recorded with surface seismometers can be used to infer slippage at depth, and they give us a picture that complements and supports the model of the fault resulting from this study."

On the northern Hayward Fault, the researchers identified three major clusters of identical repeating small quakes along the northern fault zone, representing centers of slippage up to 7 millimeters per year at a depth of 4 to 10 kilometers.

When data from all sources was collated, a remarkably detailed picture of the Hayward Fault emerged. Shallow creep falls off markedly where the fault dives under the Bay at Point Pinole; creep is at a maximum at El Cerrito, with indications of rapid slippage continuing to great depths; surface creep diminishes south of Berkeley, over the locked portion of the fault that broke in 1868.

The model suggests that no locking occurs from Berkeley north to Point Pinole and that this freely creeping stretch of the fault is not likely to be the site of origin for a major quake. Prospects for the southern Hayward Fault, however, and for the Rodgers Creek fault, north of the Bay, are less sanguine.

If after this study the potential for a huge, near-term quake centered under the northern Hayward Fault seems less than before, one need only remember the 62 lives lost and billions of dollars of damage caused by the magnitude 7.1 Loma Prieta quake of 1989, centered 60 miles from the major cities of the Bay, to realize the need for constant preparedness. And the recent Napa quake is a solemn reminder of the damage even a moderate quake can do, depending on the siting of affected structures.

The Science article, entitled "Earthquake potential along the northern Hayward Fault, California," was coauthored by R. Bürgmann, D. Schmidt, R. M. Nadeau, M. d'Alessio, E. Fielding, D. Manaker, T. V. McEvilly, and M. H. Murray.

From Olympic Dreams To Mapping Drosophila

By Monica Friedlander

Gymnast Trent Wells

Two short weeks ago, Trent Wells was still dreaming of competing in the Olympic Games. In fact, the 26-year-old research assistant in Life Sciences and former world champion gymnast on parallel bars was within striking distance of landing a spot on the U.S. national team. All it took was one instant for his life to flip around in a spectacular if heartbreaking full twist, which landed him off the team and head on into his new career.

While finishing an otherwise excellent routine on his favorite event, disaster struck, and Wells fell off the parallel bars. "I was on the floor and my whole Olympic dream was shattered," he says.

But his life was not. Gymnastics may be an unforgiving sport, but fortunately for Wells, he had something else to fall back on. And so the end of one chapter of his life cleared the way for another.

A Cal graduate in biology and part time technician who worked night shifts at the Lab while training for the Games, Wells will now work full-time in Life Sciences, assisting with the mapping of the fruit fly genome.

"All of a sudden gymnastics is gone, pretty much cold turkey," he says. "I'm not going back to it. I accomplished everything I ever wanted to do in the sport -- more than anyone, including myself, ever expected."

Late night shifts will now give way to a regular nine-to-five schedule and preparation for an eventual career in medicine. But first Wells has to come to terms with the recent changes in his life -- understandably, no easy task. Still sporting a "USA Gymnastics" T-shirt, Wells talks about the one event that could help him make that emotional leap: watching the Olympics on TV.

"That will be the point when I'll realize it's over," he says. "I haven't really had closure yet. It's been so hectic, I haven't really given myself the time to think. When I'll watch the Olympics it's probably going to hit home. I'm a little nervous about that."

Hopefully, he says, his interest in science will fill the void. "A lot of people who do sports at a very high level also do everything else at a very high level. When you're finished with gymnastics, you put all the time and passion you used to put into that into research. I'm hoping that will make me a good scientist some day."

Wells studied molecular and cell biology at UC Berkeley, pursuing his long-standing interest in evolution. And since last year he's been working at the Lab as a part-time research technician. But until now his interest in science has taken a backseat to his passion for sport.

Since he was old enough to walk, Wells was in perpetual motion. "Long before I did anything structured I would roll around on the floor, jumping on beds, tearing things apart," he says. "My parents bought a trampoline when I was four. I would sleep on that. I would have lived on it if I could have."

At the age of eight he started taking lessons, and after watching the U.S. men's team at the 1984 Olympics, Wells knew what he wanted to do with his life.

With his gymnastics career behind him, Trent Wells now focuses on his new job as research assistant in the Life Sciences Division. Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt
"I don't think I ever considered doing anything where you can make money, like baseball," he laughed. "Before I started gymnastics I was a swimmer. I was competitive from age five. I knew from a young age that the ultimate goal in sports is the Olympics."

The boyish looking 26-year-old has lost none of his effusive energy. Even while chatting he hops in and out of his chair, often swinging his arms in a hopeless attempt to make those of us gymnasically-challenged understand simple notions, such as a move he invented. It's all, well...very simple:

"The shoulders inlocate, then they dislocate, and you end in a handstand, wrists turned 360 degrees around."

Little wonder people first referred to the feat as "The Freak" -- a move which in all fairness should have been known as "The Wells." The rulebook, however, says that a gymnast has to be an international competitor to have a move named after him (which Wells was not at the time), so the honor eventually went to somebody else.

But Wells has no complaints. After all, two other moves he invented, including his signature "Wells Giant" on the bars, now bear his name. But it was "The Freak" that first impressed his coach at Cal, Barry Weiner, who at first thought the agile youngster would never make it as an all-around gymnast. Until one day, Wells recalls.

"He wanted to see my basic swing on parallel bar. He told me to swing all the way back on the bars and then swing as high as I could in the front with arms behind me. I said, "If I swing up as high as I can I'll go all the way to a handstand." And he said, "Nobody can do that. It's impossible." I went, "Watch this!" and did it. He was floored. Nobody had ever done that."

Much changed over the next four years. The Cal team, the Golden Bears, moved up from the bottom of the pack in the NCAA championships to winning a gold medal in 1998. Wells also won the world title on parallel bars. And all this while earning a science degree at one of the nation's top universities and also coaching gymnasts at Cal. How did he find the time for it all?

"You learn early on how to manage your time or you don't survive," Wells says. "When I was in high school I had a 45 minute commute each way to my gym, and I was also coaching kids."

Born and raised in Salem, Oregon, Wells went to school in Salem but trained in Portland. "I always say I grew up on I-5 between Salem and Portland," he quips.

Last month's Olympic trials were the culmination of all these years. Wells entered the meet in tenth place, with a realistic chance to move up a few spots and give the selection committee reason to consider him for one of the six spots on the team. But the stars were not lined up for him. Wells started off well, but after the catastrophic miss on the bars and another series of uncharacteristic mistakes, he took himself out of contention.

As if that was not enough, Wells demonstrated his knack for dramatic timing by sustaining an injury right before the end of the competition -- and at the end of his competitive career. While finishing a tumbling run on the floor, something went terribly wrong.

"I landed and saw that my knee cap was on the side of my knee," he says. "I was thinking, `Ok, that's not good.' I put the knee cap back into place on the floor. Then they came and carried me off the floor."

Still not dramatic enough? Laughed Wells, "I was trying to get Bela Karolyi to carry my off the floor like he carried Kerry Strug." (Strug was the gymnast who took the American women's team to victory by sticking a landing on an injured ankle at the last Olympics.)

For now Wells hopes to translate his passion for sport into one for science. But first he will go down memory lane one more time.

"I'm great friends with all the gymnasts on the team, and I feel that even though I'm not going to the Olympics, in a sense I'm part of the team in that they got to be where they're at by competing against me and pushing themselves. That's true for everybody who competes at this level. So if we take a medal at the Olympics, I'll feel it's my medal, too. They'll just happen to be ones on the floor."

Building Partnerships with the Community

By Charles V. Shank

Energy Secretary Bill Richardson recently expressed his expectation that DOE facilities place community and stakeholder relations among their highest priorities. I agree with him. Without the public's appreciation for our work, and their trust in our ability to do this work responsibly and without negative consequences, we cannot successfully fulfill our national mission and role.

We must overcome a general public unease about science, while at the same time conveying the message that what scientists do has never been more important to our collective future. We must do a broader, more inclusive, more effective job in conveying to the public what we do.

The Laboratory's senior leadership discussed this issue with me at the Directors' Retreat in June. Never before has our need for strong partners in the community -- be they political, economic, scientific, or civic -- been more important to the future of our enterprise.

I have given much thought to the ways in which we can organize ourselves to best take advantage of our strengths and raise the level and impact of our community relations activities.

Thus I have asked David McGraw, in addition to his responsibilities as division director for Environment, Health and Safety, to manage the Laboratory's community relations efforts. He will report to me and supervise the community relations staff and coordinate existing programs in community, local and state government, and public outreach to ensure that they achieve maximum effectiveness, while at the same time developing new initiatives to broaden our partnerships with our community stakeholders.

Among David's first actions will be to establish a Community Relations Council, comprised of our professional staff in public information, government relations, institutional planning, science and engineering education, and community relations. Under David's direction, this Council will be responsible for developing and implementing programs designed to raise Laboratory awareness and understanding among key constitu-ents, as well as to identify opportunities for the Laboratory to make important contributions to our neighboring communities.

In addition, in the near future David will convene a team of external professionals who have distinguished themselves in community outreach practice at their respective businesses. These experts will be asked to review our programs and assess our needs with an eye toward creating an optimal environment that will enable us to continue our scientific endeavors in partnership with our stakeholders.

I am pleased to be able to draw upon David's management experience and energy, as well as on the talents of our creative outreach staff, to move this Laboratory toward more positive and lasting relationships with those who live with and support us.

All of us have a role to play in building a greater awareness of and appreciation for the work we do. Many of you contribute in your own ways through volunteer efforts in your communities, and we'll want to know about those as we consider the many opportunities we have to be a good neighbor. David will be conducting an inventory of those activities and will be soliciting your ideas for strengthening our bonds with stakeholders.

I also realize that communicating institutional priorities to our employees is an integral part of a strategic outreach effort. To that end, over the next year I intend to personally visit every division, scientific and operational, in order to engage in a dialogue about our goals and our challenges. I look forward to sharing our vision and to hearing about your ideas and concerns.

Together, we can assure that this Laboratory remains a welcomed and valued resource for our neighbors and our friends.

Meetings Planned for Long Range Development Plan

Laboratory employees are invited to attend a "Town Hall" meeting to discuss the forthcoming Berkeley Lab Long-Range Development Plan (LRDP) and its companion Environmental Impact Report (EIR). The briefing will take place on Tuesday, Sept. 12 from 12 to 1 p.m. in the Bldg. 66 auditorium.

Laura Chen, Rich McClure and Jeff Philliber of the Facilities Planning Group will conduct the session and answer questions.

Berkeley Lab's current LRDP and EIR were approved in 1987 by the UC Regents. The EIR was supplemented in 1992 and an addendum was prepared in 1997. The new LRDP, scheduled for UC Regents' consideration prior to the proposed management contract renewal in October 2002, will set the context for a fresh planning vision into the new century.

The LRDP is a planning document that establishes general direction for growth, land use, and other physical development of an institution over a span of several years. The EIR, mandated by the University pursuant to the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA), provides a comprehensive review and analysis of a proposed project and of its potential effects on the environment.

Although the LRDP will cover an unspecified period of time, a 20-year time frame will be used for environmental analysis. In that time, Berkeley Lab is projected to grow about 1.2 percent per year, to about 5,500 from today's population of around 4,200. Space needs are expected to grow accordingly as scientific programs attract new initiatives and sponsors.

The EIR analysis will assess potential impacts in areas such as land use, plans and policies; geology, soils and seismicity; hydrology and water quality; biological resources; historical and archeological resources; visual quality; population, employment and housing; traffic, circulation and parking; air quality; noise; public services; utilities and energy; and hazardous materials. The Draft EIR will also include analysis of project alternatives, cumulative effects, and other considerations required by CEQA.

The general public will be advised of the planning process and will be invited to attend a "scoping" meeting in Berkeley on Thursday, Sept. 28, at the North Berkeley Senior Center, 1901 Hearst Avenue, from 6:30 to 9 p.m. Participants will be asked to offer their views on both the scope and the content of the environmental information pertinent to the project. Responses can also be submitted in writing within 30 days.

Philliber is the EIR coordinator. He will also receive employee comments in writing at MS 90K. -- Ron Kolb

National Report

Los Alamos Wildfire Did Not Contaminate Local Farms

The huge wildfire at Los Alamos National Laboratory this past May did not threaten the produce of farmers located downwind of the New Mexico facility, a lab ecology expert said. Phil Fresquez told reporters that preliminary analysis of soil samples taken from farms located 20 to 30 miles away from LANL showed no significant amounts of contaminants deposited by smoke and ash.

LANL officials sampled for a variety of radionuclides, including strontium-90, tritium, cesium-137, uranium and three isotopes of plutonium. "We selected these elements because these are the ones people generally worry about when a fire occurs," Fresquez said.

Lab and New Mexico state environmental officials tested for elevated levels of these substances at ground-level and up to two inches below the surface. While some environmental groups have claimed that DOE labs should monitor at deeper levels below the surface, Fresquez defended the lab's approach.

"Our approach represents the best way to test for the spread of radionuclides because they do not migrate beyond the two-inch range," he said.

NRC Due for Some Restructuring

A review panel of eminent science and engineering administrators has told the National Research Council (NRC), the operating arm of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), that it "takes too long to produce many of its reports, is not responsive enough to its sponsors, lacks clear lines of authority, and its staff is too often frustrated and stressed."

To fix these problems, the 15-member review panel led by Purnell Choppin, president emeritus of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and Gerald Dinneen, a retired Honeywell manager, advised NAS to reduce unnecessary layers of approval, delegate more authority, appoint a chief management officer, and create a service-oriented culture. Otherwise, the panel warned, "NRC sponsors may look elsewhere for advice."

"The solution is a more service-oriented approach," the review panel concluded.

If adopted, the recommendations would affect not only the 1,000 NRC staffers, but also the nearly 6,000 scientists and engineers who serve each year as volunteers on the council's committees, boards and commissions.

The most far-reaching recommendation calls for a revamping of the NRC's internal structure by merging the 11 commissions that oversee the boards -- which in turn oversee the production of reports -- into six new divisions that would have more authority and responsibility and would be organized around broad themes: education and social matters; physics, astronomy, engineering and energy; food and health; biology, earth sciences and environment; policy; and transportation.--Lynn Yarris

Bayer Biotechnology Reps Visit Berkeley Lab

On Aug. 29, Berkeley Lab played host to a contingent from Berkeley neighbor Bayer Biotechnology. Thomas F. Budinger, head of Life Sciences' Center for Functional Imaging, discusses the Center's Donner 600 crystal positron emission tomograph (PET) -- the highest resolution scanner in the world -- with Bayer visitors (left to right) Jeffrey Greve, director of Molecular Technologies; Robert J. Zimmerman, vice president of Biotechnology Research; Wolf-Dieter Busse, senior vice president and head of Biotechnology; Deborah Baly, director of Cell and Analytical Biology; and Berkeley Lab senior licensing associate Louisa Daniels.

Energy Award Goes to Lab Team, Post Office Branch

A Berkeley Lab group led by Michael Siminovich of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division received the 2000 Federal Energy and Water Management Award from the Department of Energy and the Federal Interagency Energy Policy Committee for the group's work with the U.S. Postal Service on the Rodeo Post Office Lighting Project.

The award, shared by Berkeley Lab and the Rodeo Post Office, was announced on Aug. 18 and offered in recognition of the project's contribution toward the efficient use of energy in the federal sector. Last year the EETD team installed a new energy-efficient lighting system developed by the Laboratory specifically for postal service use to reduce lighting energy costs by at least 30 percent while providing a more pleasant work environment.

Members of the Lab team are Siminovich, Jeff Mitchell, Doug Avery, Erik Page, Kevin Guana, and Bill Golove.

The award will be presented during a ceremony on Oct. 12 in Washington, D.C.

Bob Cahn Column In SF Chronicle

In an Aug. 30 opinion piece in the San Francisco Chronicle, Lab physicist Robert Cahn tried to dispel the myth of danger from cell phone radiation by explaining that low-energy photons emitted by these phones can have no chemical effect on the body. In fact, he wrote, they are far less likely to hurt someone than a regular light bulb. The only warning label a cell phone needs, Cahn wrote, is "Do not use when operating a moving vehicle."

Director Shank Praised in UC Performance Review

Rraising Berkeley Lab's lofty status "at the scientific frontier," University of California President Richard C. Atkinson has acknowledged the successful completion of Lab Director Charles Shank's five-year performance review.

"I wish you well in your efforts and those of your excellent staff to keep LBNL at the scientific frontier," Atkinson wrote in an Aug. 11 letter to Shank. "I am confident that under your leadership the Laboratory will continue to flourish."

The University conducted the Director's review in accordance with its policy to conduct reviews of all campus chancellors and DOE laboratory directors every five years. Shank's review was performed by a special review board chaired by Alan Schriesheim, Director Emeritus of Argonne National Laboratory.

In his concluding statement, Atkinson noted "how pleased I am, especially given the current challenges we face in our relationship with the Department of Energy, to have the experience, commitment, and enthusiasm you bring to the Berkeley Lab."

Solar to Chemical Energy at the Molecular Level

By Lynn Yarris

James McCusker

An important step towards a better understanding of the process by which inorganic molecules convert solar energy into chemical energy has been taken by UC Berkeley chemistry professor James McCusker, working with Berkeley Lab Director Charles Shank. Utilizing pulses of laser light on a femtosecond time-scale (millionths of a billionth of a second), McCusker and Shank uncovered new details about how shining light on a chromophore -- a molecule that absorbs characteristic frequencies of light -- predisposes it to yield useable energy.

A paper in the Aug. 11 issue of Science, co-authored by McCusker, Shank and graduate student Alvin Yeh, described a time-resolved spectroscopic study that followed the evolution of a photo-induced charge-transfer state in an inorganic chromophore. Their findings show, for the first time, two distinct factors that contribute to this evolution -- one which is strongly influenced by the chromophore's immediate surroundings, and the other which is influenced only by the molecule's internal electronic structure.

"Although this work is very fundamental in nature, it suggests that medium-induced charge localization could be an important component of photo-induced charge transfer in a variety of settings that employ inorganic compounds as chromophores," says McCusker. "Since this is the necessary first step in almost any scheme one can come up with to convert light into usable energy, we believe that our results will help shape the way people think about this aspect of the problem."

In the process of photo-induced charge transfer, incident light upon a molecule redistributes electron density to create the chemical potential necessary for energy conversion. This process is central to a wide range of physical and chemical phenomena, including photosynthesis in plants, and also forms the basis of the photovoltaic effect in semiconductors.

"Prior to our work, very little was known concerning the dynamics of photo-induced charge-transfer in inorganic chromophores," McCusker says. "But its only been within the last 10 years or so that the study of processes on such short time-scales have been experimentally accessible."

In their Science paper, McCusker, Shank and Yeh report their observations of the factors that contributed to the formation of a charge-transfer state following the absorption of light by an inorganic chromophore in solution on a time-scale of less than one trillionth of a second.

A chromophore known as [Ru(bpy)3]2+, which is the prototype for the most widely used inorganic chromophores in sensitized solar cells, was photoexcited with flashes of light that were a mere 25 femtoseconds in duration. The chromophore's absorption of this light was then monitored as a function of time.

"Analysis of the data revealed that the excited electron is initially delocalized over all three bpy ligands, but eventually becomes trapped on a single ligand due to the rapid motion of the molecules in the surrounding solvent which occurs in response to the charge-transfer event," says McCusker. "In contrast, electronic relaxation from the initial excited state of the compound to lower energy states appears to occur independent of this charge localization process."

Whether or not the intramolecular effects of photoexcitation are totally independent of the environmental effects when it comes to localizing the charge-transfer is still not clear, the scientists report, but the identification of solvation dynamics as having a role to play answers some long-standing questions about the dynamics of charge-transfer states in inorganic chromophores.

The researchers say it is possible that the surrounding medium might also play a similar role in localizing or directing charge-transfer states in the organic chromophores of biological systems.

"In this circumstance, the nearby residues within the proteins would act in much the same way as the solvent does in our experiment," says McCusker. "We have no evidence that this is the case, but it's interesting to think about.

New Lithography Ion Beam System Inaugurated

Expressing amazement at the variety of novel applications for ion beam technology pioneered by Ka-Ngo Leung of AFRD, Berkeley Lab Director Charles Shank announced "This ribbon is history," as he wielded the shears with David O. Patterson of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency to inaugurate the Maskless Micro-Beam Reduction Lithography (MMRL) system. Funded by DARPA, the new machine inscribes integrated circuits on semiconductor wafers with what Leung calls "dot matrix on the nanoscale," using a unique universal pattern generator of switchable low-energy beamlets. The MMRL has recently demonstrated order-of-magnitude pattern reduction, and its ion source has produced 60-nanometer features in preliminary tests. Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt

Sig Rogers Retires After Almost Four Decades

By Jon Bashor

The first time Sig Rogers came to Berkeley Lab he was accompanying his father, who was working here during World War II. Rogers recalls riding in the back of his dad's 1932 Ford pickup up the dirt road leading to the Lab.

The next time, Rogers was an electronics technician fresh out of the U.S. Coast Guard. The Lab was one of the last places to offer him a job, but Rogers held out and started here in 1961 with a salary of $420 a month.

After more than 39 years, Rogers, now the deputy department head for Facilities in the Networking and Telecommunications Department, is retiring from the Lab. On Sept. 22 he will be feted at a retirement party on the aircraft carrier Hornet in Alameda. (See sidebar.)

During his tenure here, Rogers has been a player in the evolution of high-speed data communications, watching systems grow from small, cobbled-together local networks into the high-speed infrastructure of LBLnet.

"It's really been exciting to watch the revolution driven by integrated circuits," he said. "When I started out, we worked with vacuum tubes. Then we built hybrid circuits using both the tubes and transistors. Over the years technology evolved through integrated circuits to disposable modules."

Rogers' first Lab job provided support for the scanning and measuring machines used by Luis Alvarez's group. Later he worked on experiments where data was being analyzed with Marchant calculators and three-foot slide rules.

Later Rogers moved on to the Physics Division and its computing department, and eventually saw the advent of modern day network communications. Early networking at the Lab was done locally by each group -- hence the need for a centralized infrastructure. The result was LBLnet, the backbone of communication at the Lab.

The high point of Rogers' time at the Lab, however, was another kind of communication - the clicking of a certain pair of high-heeled shoes in the hallways of Bldg. 50B. Rogers came to recognize the walk of another data handler, who would become his wife. Cindy Rogers, who began her career as a computer operator of the IBM 7090 computer, today is the Lab's coordinator for site-wide software licenses.

Once she retires in a year or two, the couple plan to book travel in Europe until their frequent flier miles run out. In the meantime, Rogers will do some fishing, take his boat out more and putter around in the woodworking shop he has assembled at their home in Benicia.

Retirement Fete

Sig Rogers' retirement party is scheduled for Friday, Sept. 22, from 1 to 5 p.m. on the retired aircraft carrier Hornet in Alameda. The $28 cost includes buffet lunch, gift contribution and entrance to the museum. For reservations contact Roberta Boucher at RLBoucher@ by Sept. 13.

In Memoriam: Hector Medecki * 1928 - 2000

Retired Lab physicist Hector Leopoldo Medecki of Dublin, an expert in instrumentation, died on Aug. 17 in Pleasanton after a long illness. He was 71.

Born on Sept. 22, 1928 in rural Argentina, Medecki worked at the Center for X-Ray Optics in the Materials Sciences Division from 1993 until his retirement in 1998. He was known for his patented invention of the EUV interferometer and his major contribution to the Lab's microscopy and lithography programs.

"He was an instrumentation genius," says friend and colleague David Attwood, who first worked with Medecki in 1965. "No one else had his skills, his inventiveness and creativity. But more than that, he was a dear and kind person."

He is survived by his wife Monica Medecki of Livermore; children Claudia Medecki, Gabrielle Mally, Jackie Medecki, Ariadna Medecki and Andrew Medecki; sisters Celina Marino and Clara Casaosola of Argentina; and one grandchild.

A private service and burial were held recently. Memorial contributions may be sent to the American Cancer Society, 7000 Village Parkway, Suite L, Dublin 94568.

Bulletin Board

Picture Perfect: New, Shiny Firetruck Rolls In

The newest edition to the Lab's Fire Department, Fire Engine #2348 took 12 months to design and construct; it replaces an engine built in 1979.

"This is a state-of-the-art engine that was built and designed specifically for the needs of the Lab, including a 475 hp diesel engine for climbing the hills," says Chuck Palmer of the Fire Department. The engine is also an integral component of the Automatic Aid Agreement between the Lab and the City of Berkeley. Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt

Room Change for Investment Strategies

The location for the special brown bag seminar on Investment Strategies, scheduled for noon on Friday, Sept. 15, has been changed from the Bldg. 66 to the Bldg. 50 auditorium. The session is sponsored by Fidelity Investments. To sign up call Fidelity at (800) 642-7131

Construction on Glaser Road

Glaser Road will be closed near the west end of Bldg. 77 from Sept. 11 to Sept. 30, 7 a.m. to 5 p.m., in order to relocate underground piping from the Ultra High Vacuum Cleaning Facility in Bldg. 77 to the Wastewater Treatment Unit adjacent to Bldg. 77A.

Vehicles heading east to Bldgs. 31, 62, 66, 72, 74, 83, 84, and 85 should use the Grizzly Gate and reenter through Strawberry Gate. Parking along Glaser Road near Bldg. 77 will be limited. The road will be open as usual after hours and on weekends.

Questions may be directed to Sam Birky at X7932.

Deuterium: A Premiere Staged Reading

The Employees' Arts Council is presenting a staged reading of Deuterium, a new play about scientists involved in the race to produce the first atomic bomb. The event will be held on Friday, Sept. 22 at 5:30 p.m. in the Bldg. 66 auditorium.

Deuterium was written by Berkeley playwright Sheri Clyde and will be read by local actors. Refreshments will be served.

The performance is free and seating is limited. For reservations contact Mary Clary at X4940, [email protected].

LabVIEW 6I User Group Meeting

National Instruments will host a LabVIEW user group meeting for Lab employees on Friday, Sept. 22, from 9 to 11:30 a.m. at the Four Points Hotel by Sheraton in Emeryville (1603 Powell Street). LabVIEW representatives will be on hand to present new features.

These include publishing applications on the web; improved measurement features and tighter hardware integration; connecting to the enterprise by generating DLLs, shared libraries, or through ActiveX; and developing professional user interfaces with the new 3-D look.

To register for the meeting send an e-mail to ni.register@

Buy Recycled: Fair, Music, Tour

Buy Recycled Fair & Entertainment

In celebration of Pollution Prevention Week, EH&S is sponsoring a special event on Tuesday, Sept. 19 from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. on the cafeteria lawn. The goal of the fair is to encourage employees to purchase recycled products.

Featured will be live entertainment by Lissin & Hearty, with performances at 12 and 12:45 p.m. Prizes and freebies will be given away.

Home Depot Tour

Employees are invited on a recycled products tour of Home Depot in Emeryville on Thursday, Sept. 21 from 11:45 to 1:30. To sign up contact Shelley Worsham at X6123.

Lab Life

Retirement Party for Bob Springsteen

A barbecue retirement lunch is planned for Bob Springsteen, who is leaving the Lab after 35 years as a facilities manager in Life Sciences.

The party will be held on Thursday, Sept. 21 from 11:30 a.m. to 2 p.m. between Bldgs. 84 and 74.

The cost is $7 per person. Please send checks (payable to Mary DiFranco) to Corinthia Peoples, MS 74-197 no later than Sept. 14.

Golf Tournament and Barbecue

The Golf Club will hold its annual trophy tournament on Wednesday, Sept. 30 at the Tilden Park Golf Course in Berkeley. The fee covers range balls, green fee, cart, tee prizes, and barbecue.

The event will feature a presentation of achievement awards, including the Golfer of the Year trophy. The top point-getters are:

Friends and family are invited at the barbecue following the tournament.

Jewelry Sale

The Employees' Recreation Association is sponsoring a gold jewelry sale on Friday, Sept. 22 from 8 a.m. to 2 p.m. at the cafeteria.

On sale from Karats will be chains, bracelets, rings, earring, and sterling silver items.

New Bar-Coded Labels for Special Service Mail

The U.S. Postal Service is changing from manual to electronic records for certified, registered and return receipt mail. As a result, labels for these three services are now bar-coded. The new system will provide electronic delivery and signature record for each piece of mail and improve the response time for delivery record requests. Online tracking is also planned for the future.

Mail Services is asking that old labels be discarded. New labels are available at the Mail Room and may be ordered at X5353.

Craft Fair Needs Volunteers

Volunteers are sought to help coordinate activities for the annual LBNL Craft Fair, scheduled for Nov. 16. Duties may include vendor coordination, arranging for lighting, assistance with security, music, Santa Claus, placement of booths, prize donations and website maintenance.

For more information contact Shelley Worsham at X6123.


General Interest


7 a.m. - 1 p.m., cafeteria lower level


8:30 a.m, Bldg. 50 auditorium


11 a.m. - 12 p.m., Bldg. 90-3148

12 - 1 p.m., Bldg. 66 auditorium


12 - 1 p.m., Bldg. 50 auditorium


10 a.m. - 2 p.m., cafeteria lawn


7:30 - 3:30, cafeteria parking lot


7 a.m. - 1 p.m., cafeteria lower level

5:30 p.m., Bldg. 66 auditorium

Send us your announcements

Announcements for the General Calendar and Bulletin Board page may be sent to [email protected]. Seminar & Lectures items may be mailed to currents_ [email protected]. You may also fax items to X6641 or mail them to Bldg. 65B. The deadline for the Sept. 8 issue is 5 p.m. Monday, Sept. 4.

Seminars & Lectures


The MAXIMA Experiment
Speaker: Paul Richards, Materials Sciences and UC Berkeley
4:30 p.m., 1 LeConte Hall


Hydronic Heating and Cooling Systems
Speaker: Dean Newberry, Hydrdonics Specialities Company
12:00 noon, Bldg. 90-3148

M-Theory for Pedestrians
Speaker: Eliezer Rabinovici, Hebrew University, Jerusalem
4 p.m., Bldg. 50 auditorium



Measurements of Radiation Near an Atomic Spectral Line from the Interaction of a 30 GeV Electron Beam and a Long Plasma
Speaker: Palma Catravas, AFRD
10:30 a.m., Bldg. 71 conference room; Refreshments will be served.


Resonant Nonlinear Magneto-Optical Effects in Atoms
Speaker: Dmitry Budker, UC Berkeley
4:30 p.m., 1 LeConte Hall


Results from BaBar
Speaker: Vasilli Shelkov, Physics Division
4 p.m., Bldg. 50A-5132


Short-Term Monitoring Long-Term Prediction of Energy Use in Commercial and Institutional Buildings: the SMLP Method
Speaker: Bass Abushakra, EETD
12 p.m., Bldg. 90-3148

CMB Anisotropy from MAXIMA and BOOMERANG Speaker: George Smoot, Physics Division
4 p.m., Bldg. 50A- 5132


Causal and Quantum Limitations on Faster-than-c Group Velocities
Speaker: Raymond Chiao, UC Berkeley
4:30 p.m., 1 LeConte Hall

EH&S Classes - August 2000

* Includes EHS 392/405, followed by the orientation. Please arrive at 8:15 for sign-in.

For more information or to enroll, contact Susan Aberg at [email protected] or enroll via the web at Preregistration is required for all courses except EHS 10 (Introduction to EH&S). Times and locations are subject to change. For a full, updated schedule of EH&S training sessions see

California Colloquium on Water

Sept. 12, Oct. 10, Nov. 14, and Dec. 12.

Starting this month, California's water will be the subject of a new lecture series to be held at UC Berkeley on the second Tuesday in September, October, November, and December from 5:10 to 6:30 p.m. in Bechtel Hall. The series is sponsored by UC's Water Resources Center Archives and is coordinated by T. N. Narasimhan, a senior scientist in Berkeley Lab's Earth Sciences Division and a professor at UC Berkeley.

The colloquium will bring together scholars in the fields of natural sciences, engineering, social sciences, humanities, law and environmental design.

Flea Market

Autos / Supplies

`99 VW BEETLE GLS, lt green, 5 spd man, leather, moonrf, ac, all pwr, tilt, cruise, alloys, jvc am/ fm/cd/md, 4K mi, $16,500, John, X6008, (925) 937-5231

`94 MAZDA 626DX, 4 dr, 5 spd man, 6 cd changer, ac, 1 owner, blue, good cond, 79K mi, $5,900/ bo, Kathy, X4385

`92 MAZDA MPV MINIVAN, ac, am/fm/cass, 140K mi, runs great, $5,000/bo, Jon, X2984, (925) 417-5974

`90 MERCURY TOPAZ GS, 4 dr, 114K mi, auto, pwr str/win, am/ fm/cass, cream, clean, exc cond, $2,100, Shijun, X7510, 526-9324

`90 HONDA ACCORD LX, 67K mi, 5 spd man, bl, a/c, am/fm/ cass, sgl owner, dealer maint, new timing belt, just serv, exc cond, $6,300, Miguel, X6443, 526-5291 (press 2)

`90 FORD TAURUS, 4dr, 103K mi, ac am/fm, pwr win/steer/ break, airbag, very good cond, $2,500, Mele, X2899, 849-0423

`90 CHEV CAVALIER, blue, 4 dr sedan, 2.2L, 4 cyl, 5 spd man, 97K mi, am/fm/cass, runs very well, $1,000, John, 845-3433

`89 VW CABRIOLET convertible, 5 spd, red w/ blk top & gray int, orig owner, 117K mi, always garaged, great cond, $3,000/bo, Bob, 925-376-2211

`89 BMW 325i, 108K mi, 5 spd, loaded, sunrf, exc cond, new tires & clutch, $6,300, Steve, X6941

`88 HONDA ACCORD hatchback, red, good cond, cass, 1 owner, 154K mi, $3,700/bo, Marilee, 531-3500.

`87 TOYOTA TERCEL, 3 dr hatch, manual trans, 89K mi, 1 owner, runs great, $1,800, Arie, X5171, 549-9489

`87 HONDA CIVIC, at, ac, 169K mi, new cd w/ detach faceplate, runs well, $ 2,400/bo, Jim or Barb, 482-2354

`86 BMW 325 white w/ beige int, cd, moonrf, pwr everything, new brakes & tires, very clean, runs great, $4,300/bo, Linda, X7649, 741-7083

`85 TOYOTA COROLLA, 4 dr, 5 spd, ac, am/fm/cass, 215K mi, 2 6mpg, city driving, needs shocks, $700, Viviana or Steve, X6463, 339-7379

`85 PONTIAC GRAND AM, 2.5L, 4 cyl, at, ps, ac, am/fm/cass, p/ sound, clean, 205K, $999, Peter, 528-9381

`81 MERCEDES 240D, 70K mi on new eng, 225K mi, new tires, fr brake pads, sensors, & calipers, tie rod, alt, ign lock tumbler, drive shaft support, ctr support & drive shaft bearing, $2,000/bo, Katrinka, X6315, 644-0364

FREE: `83 TOYOTA CELICA, totalled, many parts still good, tow it and it's yours, Ted de Castro, X5256


BERKELEY HILLS home, fully furn, 3 bdrm/2 ba, lge backyard w/ patio, view of bay & SF, quiet neighborhood, avail 8/19-12/31, no pets/no smoking, $2,300/mo, $2,300 dep, Andrew, [email protected], (925) 279-3418 (day), (510) 655-4364 (eve)

BERKELEY HILLS room for rent in 4 bdrm house, fully furn, 5 blocks to campus, share w/ 2 visit scholars & 1 professional woman, $600+util, Cornelia, 841-2749

BERKELEY HILLS, furn room w/ priv bath, bay view, kitch & laundry privil, $500+util, avail now, Betty, 848 7722

N. BERKELEY area, furn room, 15 min walk to Lab shuttle, 1 person, kitch priv, TV, bike, avail 6/1, $40/night or $750/month, Helen, 527-3252

N BERKELEY HILLS, small priv detached studio, 10 min to Lab, sep entr, $700/mo, util incl, furn if requested, avail mid-Sept or sooner, [email protected]

N. OAKLAND, 1 bdrm apt in triplex bldg, wood floors, lge closets, living/dining rm, attached garage, nr publ trans to UC/Lab and BART, no pets/smoking, $950/mo, avail early Sept, Janice, X4943, 428-1893 opt #3

OAKLAND house for rent, spacious 3 bdrm, 2-car garage, wash/dryer, 20 min drive to Lab, nice neighborhood, avail 10/15, $1,450/mo, Aric, X4341

OAKLAND, room for 3-4 mos, 2 blocks from Lake Merritt, close to publ trans, appl & credit chk req, $650/mo+util, 2 mos rent dep, Cynthia, cynthiasimmons@

RICHMOND, lge Victorian-style 1 bdrm flat, full furn, 5 min walk to BART, 6 mo sublet 11/1/00-5/1/01, private, no pets/smoking, Brian, X4183, 237-8790

Housing Wanted

VISITING PROFESSOR seeks furn/part furn house or apt, 4 mo, approx late Nov to late Mar, Ian, X4174, 548-7102, IGBrown@

VISITING SCIENTIST & family needs long-term housing in Berkeley, all offers welcomed, [email protected]

VISITING SCIENTIST seeks furn room or small apt, 9/1-10/31, Ian, X4174, 548-7102, IGBrown@

Misc Items for Sale

14' ALUMINUM BOAT w/ trailer & 20 hp outbrd mtr, exc cond, extras, $1,895/bo; Coleman canoe, Scanoe w/ mtr mount rated for 5 hp, exc cond, incl bolt on wheels to transport, $300/bo; 20 hp Mercury outbrd mtr, fresh water use only, exc cond, $1,100, Steve, X6598, (925) 689-7213

2 DESKS, lge, glass-topped, solid wood exec desk, $200; compact comp desk on wheels, $70; futon, qn, red cover, solid pine, $150/bo on all; also stereo stand, elec tea kettle, daybed set, Maren, X6455

49ER TICKETS, all home games, 2 seats upper rsrv/sec 47, $50/ea, Al, X5908, (925) 672-2716

49ER TICKETS, 9/10, opening game vs Carolina, 2 tkts lower rsrv/sec 6/18 & 19, $150; 10/8, vs Raiders, 2 tkts, lower rsrv/sec 6/18 & 19, $300, cash only, Sheryl, X5126

9" RADIAL ARM SAW, De Walt, older but exc qual, stand & carbide blade, $100; Rockwell 4" jointer on heavy wooden stand, solid older motor, spare blades, $100, Rod, X7971, (925) 825-1638

BABY SWING, Graco 3-in-1, orig $100, asking $50, Lisa X5314

BED FRAME, Cal king w/ wheels, exc cond, $25/bo, Marilee, 531-3500

COMPUTER, CPU 200+, 32 MB, 2G hd, 24k modem, 3'' disk, 16x cd, mic, ear phone, speakers, 15" monitor, sound card, Win95 installed, $240 all together, Shijun, X7510, 526-9324

FULL SIZE FUTON, dark colors, black metal frame, only used 5 mos, $120; wood desk, $25, Gwladys, X6186, 524 0869

FUTON, full sz, blue cover, wood frame, good cond, $50, Jennifer, X7107, 849-9949

HUGE MULTI-FAMILY YARD SALE: Sat, Sept. 9, 8:30-2, corner of Russell/Hillegass, Elmwood district, books, clothing, art, rugs, kimo-nos, textiles, household, furniture, collectibles, comp equip, jewelry, good deals, Susan, X7366

IKEA BED, full, pine, exc cond, $30, GianLuca, 644-0779

LADIES BIKE, 5 gear, good cond, $60, Cornelia, X7041

LUGGAGE SALE, black suitcase, Ricardo, good cond, $15/bo; duffel bag, med, black canvas, $10/ bo; luggage cart, Samsonite, up to 75 lbs, fold-up, $15/bo, Melissa, 665-5572, lv msg

MOUNTAIN BIKE, 15-spd, perf cond w/ accsessories, $90/bo; cd/tape/tuner Sony cfds28, perf cond, $50/bo; air bed+pump, $15/bo, Cedric, X7779

PC COMPAQ Presario 5304, Cyrix MII366 MHz, 64Mb SDRAM, 4.3 Gb hd, 56K modem, 15" monitor MV520, clr print IJ3000, all for $350/bo; Magnavox TV, 20", $80/bo, Ricardo, X4581, 548-8185

POLO PONY, spirited 14 yr old chesnut Morgan Arabian ex-polo pony seeks good caring outdoor home, beautiful, highly intelligent, osteoarthritis in front feet ended polo career, 15.1 hands, will make good trail horse, Nigel, X7056, (916) 923-9504

RADIO-CONTROLLED CAR (r/c) w/ acc, Niiko 1/10 scale sand rail 4 wd, comp w/ pro series 6/7 volt Protech sup chgr, everything incl, great cond, $100; baby items, Evenflow port crib/ playpen w/ mattress, $50, potty training seat $5, diaper genie, $10, high chair in box $150, David, (925) 516-2358

SAILBOARDS, '94 kinetic high wind slalom, 8'-9", like new, $245; '89 fanatic ultra-mamba, 8'-6" wave/bump, exc, $95; windsurf sails, like new, windwing '96 6.8 race, $125; '95 5.2 race, $95; '94 4.4 sngl cam, $75; art '94 7.5 lt air, $50, David, X6797

TICKETS: 1 for "Julio Bocca & Ballet Argentino," Zellerbach Hall, 10/ 24, orch seat, $35; 1 for "Ian Bostridge tenor recital," Hertz Hall, 10/29, 3 pm, ctr sec, $35, Miguel, X6443, 526-5291

TWIN BED w/ shelf & drawer, white melamine & mattress, $90/bo; child desk w/ hutch, $45/bo; mech metronome, $18/bo, Duo, X6878, 528-3408

WOODWORKING SHAPER, Grizzly G1035, 1-1/2" hp new mtr w/ 1 yr warranty, mobile base, router spindle, carbide cutters: glue joint, 1" straight, 3/4" flute, 5/8" flute, 1/4" rabbet, $460 ($760 new), will deliver for free, Tom, X4672, (925) 283-0576

ZENITH VCR, works, tracking needs adj; $20; kid's bike, $15; "101 Dalmatians" full sz bed in a bag, $15; Danielle Steele hardcover books, $4/ea, M. Jaynes, X5541, (707) 644-6434


DOCTOR REFERRAL, HealthNet, looking for new doctor, pref Berkeley, Albany, N Oakland, Orinda, if you like your doctor please let me know, [email protected]

Car / Van Pool

VAN POOL from SF (Haight, Noe Valley and Castro regions) to UCB & LBNL, 8 am/5 pm, David Schild, X6013

Flea Market Policy

Ads are accepted only from LBNL employees, retirees, and onsite DOE personnel. Only items of your own personal property may be offered for sale.

Submissions must include name, affiliation, extension, and home phone number. Ads must be submitted in writing via e-mail ([email protected]), fax (X6641), or delivered/mailed to Bldg. 65B.

Ads run one week only unless resubmitted, and are repeated only as space permits. They may not be retracted once submitted for publication.

The deadline for the Sept. 22 issue Thursday, Sept 14.