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Berkeley Lab Currents

March 6, 1998


Study of Electron Dynamics Could Revolutionize Electronics Industry

By Lynn Yarris

A recent experiment in which the movements of electrons across the interface between a conductor and an insulator were recorded on a femtosecond (a millionth of a billionth of a second) time-scale holds enormous potential for the electronics industry. Working with a unique femtosecond spectroscopy system, researchers with Berkeley Lab's Chemical Sciences Division (CSD) have successfully demonstrated a technique that could revolutionize the understanding of electron dynamics at surfaces and interfaces.

Charles Harris, a senior scientist with CSD and professor of chemistry at UC Berkeley, led the experiment which showed that it is possible to observe the dynamics of electrons as they move across the boundaries where metals and non-metals meet. Results of this work were published in the Jan. 9 issue of Science.

"Our findings for a model interface contribute to the fundamental picture of electron behavior in weakly bonded solids, and can lead to better understanding of carrier dynamics in many different systems, including organic light-emitting diodes," Harris says.

Performance in computers and other electronic devices depends upon the degree to which electrons are free to move back and forth across the interfaces between silicon, a semiconductor, and whatever metal conductors are being used in a transistor. At these interfaces there is an abrupt change in atomic species and the way in which atoms bond to form a crystal. This change affects the behavior of electrons, which, in turn, affects not only the performance of electronic devices, but chemical reactivity, magnetism, and other properties as well. Consequently, understanding the dynamics behind the movement of electrons through interfaces is considered critical to future technological advances.

Harris and members of his research group may have pointed the way for future studies by demonstrating the ability to record unprecedented observations of electron behavior at critical interfaces through the combination of a femtosecond laser with a high-resolution, time-and-angle-resolved spectroscopy technique called "two-photon photoemission" (TPPE). With this combination they have to date been able to study the dynamic behavior of electrons at the interfaces of a metal covered with a single layer of non-metal molecules and sealed in a vacuum.

Harris and his team start by shining a "pump" pulse of laser light--as short as 30 femtoseconds in length and tunable to a desired wavelength--on the metal to excite or energize an electron, causing it to be emitted into the interface with the non-metal. This photoelectron is then hit with a second "probe" pulse of light, causing it to be emitted out of the metal/non-metal interface and into the vacuum. By recording the photoelectron spectra at different times after each laser pulse and measuring the angles of emission, Harris and his team are able to track the electron and determine to what extent it is "de-localized" (free to roam about) or "localized" (restricted) in its movement.

In their latest round of experiments, the Harris team coated a silver surface with a layer of alkane molecules. After the silver was irradiated with the pump pulse, the researchers, through the probe pulse, observed that the electrons are initially delocalized so that they move freely on the alkane layer parallel to, but at a fixed elevation above, the surface layer of silver atoms. Within a couple of hundred femtoseconds, however, these electrons become localized within the alkane overlayer as polarons. A polaron is an electron whose interaction with the atoms in a crystal lattice creates a deformation (an energy "well") that traps the electron, much like a divot on a fairway can trap a golf ball.

According to Harris, the lattice deformation in which the electron traps itself is caused by small shifts in the positions of positively charged atomic nuclei around the negatively charged electrons. After the passage of more than a thousand femtoseconds, the self-trapped electron is finally able to escape the trap by quantum-mechanically "tunneling" its way back into the metal.

"The ability to both time-and-angle-resolve the dynamics of electrons at interfaces allows a quantitative determination of the relaxation energies and lattice displacements associated with the small-polaron self-trapping process," says Harris. "Time-and-angle-resolved TPPE is a powerful probe for two-dimensional electron localization and should be applicable to a wide variety of interfaces."

In addition to studies of electron dynamics at interfaces, the research techniques developed by Harris and his team could also be relevant to biological studies. For example, the interplay between localization and delocalization of electrons is thought to play a major role in the transfer of electrons from one large molecule to another, such as during the process of photosynthesis.

The Harris technique could also be applied to the study of two-dimensional magnetism, high-temperature superconductivity, electrical-conductivity in plastics, plus other important phenomena in the burgeoning field of molecular electronics.

Members of the Harris research group who co-authored the Science paper with him were Nien-Hui Ge, Chung Wong, Robert Lingle, Jr., Jason McNeil, and Kelly Gaffney.

Photo: This schematic illustration shows the wave function of an electron as it is optically excited into a delocalized state (top) and, within a few hundred femtoseconds, evolves into a localized state (bottom).

Photo: Charles Harris


New Head of Human Resouces Reaches Out to Lab Community

By Lynn Yarris

The Laboratory's Human Resources Department has a new leader and he brings to the position not only a wealth of professional experience and leadership but a philosophical approach to the job that should be welcomed by all employees.

"Part of my job and that of Human Resources should be to get out and meet as many of the Lab's personnel as we can in order to familiarize ourselves with what they do and to learn what they want and need in order to have a successful and enjoyable career here," says Bob Frane, HR's new head. "The foundation for any successful Human Resources operation starts with establishing and maintaining a high level of respect, credibility, and integrity within the organization. The key to doing that is to work closely with people, be a good listener, and provide the high quality services which they most need."

Frane comes to the Laboratory having spent his entire career, nearly 39 years' worth, in the field of human resources. A native Californian who grew up in Modesto, he earned Bachelor's (1957) and Master's Degrees (1959) in political science from UC Berkeley. He then went on to serve as vice president of human resources for Lone Star Technologies, Inc., a multi-business corporation in Dallas with a workforce of approximately 11,000 employees and annual revenues that exceeded $2 billion. In addition to positions with several other private firms, Frane has also worked in the public sector. From 1989 to 1992 he directed organizational planning and development for the Tennessee Valley Authority, which at the time was home to more than 26,000 employees.

"I have a great deal of respect for what the Laboratory is and what it is attempting to accomplish," Frane says in explaining why he sought his new position. "Leading the human resources of an institute such as this is a professional challenge."

Through overusage, the word "leadership" has largely lost the power to impress. When Frane uses it, however, he is convincing. Maybe it is because of his family's success--four members with degrees from places like Cal, Stanford, and UCLA; a son who represented the United States in the 1996 Olympics on the water polo team.

Frane says that human resources departments in general suffer from a reputation for obstructive nitpicking. But there are numerous issues and concerns in which an effective HR can and must exercise leadership, he says. This is where "respect, integrity, credibility, and true customer satisfaction" come in. This is where Frane intends the Laboratory's HR department to be.

"There is a lot to be done here and it won't be done overnight," Frane says. He plans to spend a lot of time on the Hill getting to know us during the next few months.

Berkeley Lab's Human Resources department is responsible for staffing, compensation, benefits and records, development and training, and labor relations. It also operates the Lab's foreign visitor unit.

Photo: Bob Frane Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt (XBD9803-00360-03)


SNO Update: Lab Completes Its Part of the Observatory Construction

By Monica Friedlander

On Jan. 23 Kevin Lesko breathed a huge sigh of relief. The project leader for Berkeley Lab's part of the SNO experiment watched as the last of the 761 panels housing the experiment's 9,500 photomultiplier tubes was installed into SNO's support structure--a stainless steel geodesic sphere designed by the Lab's Engineering Division. "Not a single tube was broken," said Lesko.

The support structure, which surrounds the experiment's acrylic vessel, is Berkeley Lab's principal hardware contribution to the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory--a state-of-the-art underground laboratory built two kilometers under solid rock in a nickel mine in Ontario, Canada. Its goal: to study the nature of the neutrino, the tiny nuclear particle that physicists suspect could hold the key to determining the nature of dark matter and missing matter in the universe.

"Completing Berkeley Lab's component marks a big accomplishment, a big milestone," said Lesko, who spent more than five weeks in Sudbury in December and January overseeing the final construction.

In February the first heavy water shipment, on loan from the Canadian government, was shipped underground and the work of connecting the PMTs to the electronics was started The entire experiment will be submerged in 7800 tons of shielding water. SNO's unique capability to measure both the neutral and charged current signals, as well as the spectra shapes, provides the SNO collaboration unambiguous signals of neutrino oscillations. Berkeley Lab scientists Yuen-dat Chan, Colin Okada and Anett Schuelke are on-site working on detector calibration and data acquisition. In another four to six months the vessel will be filled with heavy water (approximately 350 tank cars' worth) and SNO will start collecting solar neutrino data.

"The physics community is waiting for SNO measurements to answer questions about neutrino mass and oscillations and the long standing solar neutrino problem," Lesko said. If all goes well, he estimates the answers can be expected in about two years.

Meanwhile, the official opening ceremony for SNO is scheduled for April 29. In addition to the various heads of state and other officials from the participating nations, a featured guest will be Stephen Hawking, the world-renowned cosmologist and author of the best-selling book "A Brief History of Time."

The design, engineering, fabrication and installation of the support structure was a collaboration between the Engineering and Nuclear Science Divisions. In addition to NSD's Kevin Lesko, team members included Peter Purgalis, the project engineer; mechanical engineers Yoichi Kajiyama and Steve Lundgren; designers David Beck, Fred Dycus, and Gary Koehler; installation supervisors Milt Moebus, Steve Turner and Joe Gonzalez; physicists Yuen-dat Chan, Eric Norman, Bob Stokstad, Colin Okada, and Anett Schuelke; and graduate student Mike Dragowsky. "The continued support I received from the Berkeley Lab engineers, in particular Yoichi Kajiyama, permitted us to install the PMT array within the original budget and duration estimates," Lesko said.

The international collaboration involves the participation of 70 scientists from the. U.S., Canada and Great Britain.

More information on the SNO experiment can be found in the Dec. 5, 1997 issue of Currents. SNO was also the subject of the Jan. 20 issue of Science magazine.

Photo: The observatory's centerpiece (left) is covered with panels housing almost 10,000 photomultiplier tubes (detail above). The geodesic sphere and the panels were constructed by Berkeley Lab. Photos by Roy Kaltschmidt (XBD9802-00210-02, XBD9802-00210-22)


Historian Highlights African American Innovators

By Paul Preuss

As part of Black History Month, journalist and historian John William Templeton gave a talk on Wednesday that began with the contributions African Americans have made to California history and ended with a glimpse at the strides that can be made if people of all ages and ethnic backgrounds are given equal access to math and science education.

Templeton was introduced by Harry Reed of the Workforce Diversity Office as a crusading journalist with expertise in computers, science and math. Templeton is president of Electron Access Inc., a multimedia publishing and production company, and author of "Our Roots Run Deep: the Black Experience in California, 1500-1900." His most recent achievement is the organization of an exhibit at San Jose's Tech Museum of Innovation, "Turning the Century: African-American Innovators," opening tomorrow, which deals with African American contributions to technology.

Templeton opened his talk with an entertaining video clip from the "Bay Area Backroads" TV program, in which he used a mural in the Mark Hopkins Hotel to illustrate a little-known fact: it was a 16th-century Spanish novel featuring an island populated by black amazons, led by one Queen Calafia, that gave California its name. Also featured in the video clip were black businessman William Leinsdorf, who built the first school in San Francisco (then called Yerba Buena), and a woman named Mary Ellen Pleasant, a crusader with abolitionist John Brown, who was so effective at getting things done in San Francisco that she was called "the Black City Hall."

Templeton's field of view widened as he described the upcoming exhibition in San Jose. He remarked that "we are integrating the Tech Museum," while at the same time mounting one of the museum's first exhibits with a national focus.

"By looking at the past, we can create role models," said Templeton. "With this exhibit we want to build confidence in black students. We produce a surplus of great athletes, but we haven't done as well at mathematicians and scientists."

Templeton said there were two great waves of innovation among African-Americans. The first began after the Civil War, when for the first time in the nation's history blacks were allowed to hold patents. By 1900 they had been granted thousands.

Inventors included Elijah McCoy, who devised a steam-engine lubrication system so popular it was widely imitated; hence, buyers demanded "the real McCoy." Richard B. Spikes, a San Franciscan, invented the trolley boom, as well as securing patents on automobile gear shifts and automatic transmissions.

The computer industry has produced such innovators as Roy E. Clay, one of the first computer programmers for industrial giants like the McDonnell Douglas Corporation and Hewlett-Packard, and "next wave" programmer Philip Emeagwali, born in Nigeria and renowned for his methods of oil-field simulation.

"These are the kind of models we need to entice black students into what I call `survival fields,'" said Templeton. "We have to battle to overcome the image put out by Nike and other companies--we can show that these innovators are as interesting as Michael Jordan."

Templeton described a program called Books & Bytes to link technical advisors with school systems purchasing computers, "to avoid the kind of mistake the Oakland School District just made when they spent millions on computer labs with no link to the net," he said. "With the hardware, they're 90 percent there, but they ran out of money. We're trying to work with them to get help from private industry."

Stressing that "no one has the option to be computer illiterate anymore," Templeton said, "there are no excuses for students of all races not to have access to science and math."

In a lively question and answer session after his talk, Templeton added that computers are reaching a much wider audience and not just among the young. "The two most-wired houses I know belong to people over 65--what they have learned is that it's a good way to stay in touch with the world."

To get in touch with Templeton for questions about African American innovators and his efforts to ensure computer literacy, e-mail him at [email protected].

Photo: John William Templeton talks about technological contributions of African Americans. Photo by Don Fike (XBD9803-00260-03)


Washington Report

Krebs Optimistic About FY99 High Energy Physics Request

Office of Energy Research Director Martha Krebs told members of the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP) that DOE's decision to seek $691 million for high energy physics programs in FY99 is an important step in the right direction. Although the requested budget is only 1.9 percent higher than the FY98 funding level, it would be a $33-million increase over the FY97 appropriation. "The funding (for high energy physics) is not as much as I would like, but I think it is moving us out of that hole from FY97," Krebs told the HEPAP members.

One of the cornerstones of the request is the Spallation Neutron Source. The $1.3 billion project, scheduled to be built by 2003 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, will be the world's largest neutron-scattering source. Its beams will be used for such purposes as the study of the molecular compositions of materials.

"This is a facility that the scientific community has validated," Krebs said, and urged physicists to rally behind the SNS and make sure it does not suffer the same fate as the Superconducting Super Collider. "The SNS is our way of getting back into multi-billion-dollar projects," Krebs said.

The ER director also expressed confidence that Congress will approve the FY99 funding request for the SNS despite doubts expressed by Rep. Bob Livingston (R-La), chairman of the House Appropriations Committee. Livingston has publicly professed concern that much of President Clinton's budget proposal for the sciences is contingent upon the federal government reaching a settlement with the nation's tobacco companies. Krebs said she did not interpret Livingston's remarks to signify that SNS is in trouble.

"I think what [Livingston] was trying to say was that SNS is a new item being proposed that has a significant price tag. But I don't think that it represents a particular bias against the facility."

In addition to the SNS, Krebs said she is looking forward to her agency's participation in climate-change research, based on the international treaty signed by President Clinton in Kyoto, Japan, this past December. The treaty calls for a reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions by seven percent below 1990 levels between 2008 and 2012. In response, DOE is seeking $27 million for ER-backed studies on how greenhouse gases affect global temperatures. "To be engaged in research for mitigating the effects of climate change is a critical element of our basic mission," Krebs said.

Krebs also told HEPAP that U.S. support for the Large Hadron Collider is essential. The U.S. has pledged to contribute $500 million in cash and equipment to the $6 billion project. Krebs said DOE and the National Science Foundation will create a joint oversight group to coordinate U.S. participation in the LHC. She said it is crucial for DOE to show Congress that it is managing both the LHC and SNS projects properly. Along those lines, Krebs said she will be working with Under Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz to develop a series of plans that will help ER operate more efficiently.

White House Encourages Broader View of Science

Arthur Bienenstock, associate director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), told members of DOE's Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) that federal agencies must broaden their thinking on R&D in the future in order to secure adequate funding. Bienenstock, who was director of SSRL from 1978 to 1997, said the Clinton administration will give funding priority to programs that have been reviewed by outside peer groups. The projects should also be planned in cooperation with industry, university or state partnerships, he said, and must contain quantitative and qualitative indicators to show they will be completed on time and on budget.

Bienenstock acknowledged that technological advances at DOE and other federal agencies are important not only from a scientific standpoint but also an economic one. In recognition of this fact, the Clinton administration has proposed spending $26.9 billion for science programs in FY99, compared with $24.9 billion in FY98.

NRC Recommends Independent Review of Construction Projects

A new report from the National Research Council (NRC) says that all DOE construction projects valued at more than $20 million should be subjected to independent reviews to ensure they are completed within budget and on schedule. The Feb. 2 report, "Assessing the Need for Independent Project Reviews in the Department of Energy," states that while DOE has developed a system for managing the design and construction phases of projects, it has yet to devise a plan for the conceptual phases "when the potential is high for substantial savings in both cost and time."

The NRC selected a $20-million threshold because the Office of Energy Research requires that all projects costing more be subjected to scientific peer review. While the NRC proposal is expected to mean that initially a large number of projects will be reviewed, the number is expected to decrease as DOE becomes more experienced with project development. For projects that cost between $5 million and $20 million, NRC suggests that DOE seek independent reviews in areas where it lacks experience, such as waste management. DOE should also use independent reviews when a project involves new technology that needs extensive research to prove its viability.

The NRC report said that many of DOE's problems are "more institutional than technical." Developing a formal process for creating project budgets will allow DOE to measure its estimates against a project's performance.

DOE requested the NRC report and has issued a statement saying the department agreed with the report's findings and recommendations and that it soon plans to release a "comprehensive action plan" in response. To obtain a copy of the NRC report, call the National Academy Press at (202) 334-3313. It is also available on the Internet at

--Lynn Yarris


Awards & Honors

Alexander Pines and Charles Echer, both of Material Sciences, have recently been recognized with two important awards.

Pines' work in the area of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy won him the Irving Langmuir Award in Chemical Sciences, which is sponsored by the General Electric Foundation and issued by the American Physical Society.

Echer, who works at the National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM), was recognized with the Outstanding Technologist Award for his career achievements in the area of electron microscopy. The award will be presented to him at the annual meeting of the Microscopy Society of America in July.



The News Digest story in the last issue of Currents (Feb. 20, Page 2) erroneously reported that DOE would be "redirecting $65 million from places like Fermilab to the Large Hadron Collider at CERN." Proposed DOE funding for the LHC is new money and would not be redirected from domestic programs. Also, the figures cited in that story refer only to proposed funding from DOE's Office of Energy Research and do not include proposed funds from other DOE offices and other federal agencies that support activities at the national labs.

Also, the caption under the photograph of Richard Fish on Page 1 should have noted that he is holding a rotary evaporator used in the synthesis of metal-ion templated monomers, the precursors to imprinted polymers.

Currents regrets the errors and any confusion they may have caused.

Photo: During a recent visit to Berkeley Lab, Norwegian Ambassador Tom Vraalsen gets a VIP tour of the historical area in the Bldg. 50 lobby from Lab Director Charles Shank. Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt (XBD9802-00244)


Around the Lab


New Technology Detects Internet Intruders

System developed by Vern Paxon monitors net traffic at the Lab

By Jon Bashor and M. Friedlander

Thanks to Vern Paxon of the Network Research Group, Big Brother is watching at Berkeley Lab. Not to worry, however: Only computer hackers monkeying with Internet security have anything to fear from "Bro"--the new system developed by Paxon to monitor traffic into the Lab and unveil security breaches.

For its development, Paxon was recognized with the best paper award at the recent Usenix Security Symposium in San Antonio, Texas. Entitled "Bro: A System for Detecting Network Intruders in Real-Time," Paxon's paper describes the stand-alone system he developed, which has already been credited with detecting 85 cases of security breaches at the Lab. The award further validates the importance of Paxon's contribution to the cutting-edge field of network security.

"This recognition of Vern's outstanding work by others in the computer security field again demonstrates the valuable contributions of the Network Research Group," said Stu Loken, director of the Information and Computing Sciences Division. "Working behind the scenes in a field that truly benefits all users of the Internet, this group has helped make scientific networking the successful tool that it is today."

Because of the sensitive nature of Internet security and the desire of security system providers to protect their products, Paxon said there is little public information available on this subject. Flaws in security systems, he said, are an especially sensitive subject. As Paxon designed the Lab's security monitor, he sought out flaws and attempted to correct them. "If you know the flaws, you can evade the system," he said. "It takes an extra level of deviousness to look for these flaws, and I enjoy trying to be devious."

Bro is a layered system that seeks out certain types of network traffic. The first layer is a general packet filter, which decides which data packets should be examined. The second layer is an "event engine," which takes the first level packets and pieces them together into "events," such as the beginning or end of a connection, or--for some applications, such as FTP--high-level events, such as identifying user names. Above that is the policy layer, which interprets scripts, written in a specialized language, that define how to respond to different events. Should the policy layer detect information amounting to an attempted security breach, the system notifies computer security people in real time. It also archives summaries of the network traffic into and out of the Lab in a permanent record.

The system has been monitoring network traffic at the Lab continuously since April 1996. Some of the formal security incidents Bro detected during this time have resulted in law enforcement action. When security breaches are discovered, the Lab alerts the Department of Energy's Computer Incident Advisory Center at Lawrence Livermore Lab and the Computer Emergency Response Team at Carnegie Mellon University, which in turn follow up with appropriate action.

Vern Paxon's paper can be found on the web at


New Berkeley Lab Career Employees

The Laboratory welcomed the following new career employees during the month February:

Lab People in the News


Henry Vanbrocklin Takes Community Spirit to Heart

By Monica Friedlander

During the day Henry Vanbrocklin of the Lab's Center for Functional Imaging works on developing new drugs and medical imaging techniques that may someday diagnose and treat various forms of cancer, Alzheimer and Parkinson's disease, heart conditions, or drug addiction. After hours, his efforts are focused on helping people with very different kinds of needs.

For the past two years, Vanbrock-lin has been active in a community organization that rehabilitates the homes of low-income or disabled seniors. Called "Christmas in April," the group mobilizes volunteers for an annual work-blitz on the last Saturday in April. Over the course of eight hours, more than 1,500 volunteers from Albany, Berkeley and Emeryville transform the homes--as well as the lives--of elderly people by installing wheelchair ramps, repairing leaking roofs, hauling trash, correcting electrical hazards, bolting foundations, painting homes, fixing plumbing problems, or otherwise making it possible for older people to lead safe and independent lives.

"It's very gratifying to know that when you leave that day you've changed the lives of 30 people or more," Vanbrocklin says. "These people can't afford to get help, especially in this area. Instead of being a burden on their relatives and on the state, old people can maintain their independence. And that's what they want the most. For many of them, their home is all they have. Once that is taken away, they lose their independence and freedom. With some, it destroys their reason for living. Helping them out is a great way to give back to the community."

In addition to fixing up individual homes, the volunteers also do repair work at community centers and schools. "One year we worked at Berkeley schools getting graffiti off the lockers," VanBrocklin said.

For that one day in April, when the army of volunteers goes out and gets the job done, a smaller contingent of people must work year-round to make it all come together. Vanbrocklin, who serves on the group's board of directors, spends as many as 20 hours each month attending meetings, raising funds, meeting with homeowners, and engaging in other planning efforts.

Christmas in April is only one of various community groups to which VanBrocklin donates his time and effort. He is also an active participant in the Berkeley Breakfast Club and a board member of the Northbrae Community Church. Considering the humanitarian aspects of Vanbrocklin scientific work and his off-hour community involvement one can't help wonder whether a connection exists between the two.

"Oh, I don't know," Vanbrocklin laughs. "Maybe the work that I'm doing developing new radiopharmaceuticals or diagnostic imaging has potential benefits down the road, while the community work is my source of instant gratification. That's a stretch!"

Besides, Vanbrocklin says, community involvement has some other, less obvious side benefits. Among them: the opportunity to put a human face to science and get the word out about the research being conducted at Berkeley Lab.

"I'm a chemist by training," Van-brocklin says. "And the chemical industry takes a huge hit with the public: `Chemicals are dangerous!' everyone says. On top of that, we work with radioactivity. Third, we work with medicine, which is really an integration of many disciplines. And what I like to do is to tell other people what I do here in an atmosphere that is not controversial. It's a subtle way to integrate the different things I do. And it's also a way to communicate to people that there's a human side to scientists. A lot of people think that we're just locked out of the way in our little laboratories."

Still, the main benefit of becoming involved with organizations such as Christmas in April, he says, is seeing someone's smile after putting in all those long hours trying to make a difference in people's lives.

Christmas in April is always looking for volunteers, and Vanbrocklin is urging everyone to get involved. He even dreams of forming a Berkeley Lab contingent. "We can show the community that we do something directly for them."

Those handy with a saw, drill, wrench, hammer and nails may volunteer for the day (8 a.m. to 4 p.m, followed by a picnic). Others may lend their efforts to preparing the houses ahead of time or helping with various organizational aspects.

To find out more about Christmas in April or this year's campaign, call Henry Vanbrocklin at X4083 or contact the organization directly at (510) 644-8979.

Photo: Christmas in April volunteers fix up the homes of low income or disabled elderly people.

Photo: Henry Vanbrocklin of the Center for Functional Imaging works on medical imaging techniques and radiopharmaceuticals that could help diagnose disease. In his spare time, he works with organizations such as Christmas in April to help the needy. (XBD9803-00377)



By Terry Powell

We at Berkeley Lab must make an effort to reach new audiences, so that people in the Bay Area know more about who we are and what we do here at the Laboratory. Berkeley Lab can also serve the area by promoting one of the community's greatest assets: its reputation for intellectual and scientific excellence.

To this end, the Laboratory has recently taken steps to strengthen its relationship with the community with a broad-based community relations program. These efforts include community relationship- building, a tour program, a speakers bureau, special events, communication tools such as newsletters and the Internet, community surveys, a community service recognition program, and program evaluation.

Relationship Building--Berkeley Lab's positive relationship with the community is vital to gaining recognition for the Lab's strengths and accomplishments. This activity involves community service and joining community organizations that could benefit from the Lab's expertise.

Tour Program--Tours of the Lab offer a tremendous opportunity for the public and all interested parties to improve their understanding of the Lab's research activities. The success of last October's Open House will be followed up with tours of major Berkeley Lab facilities to showcase our exceptional science programs. Tour guides are welcome and needed.

Speakers Bureau--The Speakers Bureau is a direct method of communication through which Lab scientists can inform various groups and individuals about research being conducted here.

The Laboratory has been the focus of a few controversies over the past year or two that have raised community concerns. It is therefore more important than ever that we establish an improved dialogue with our community.

In the Community will be published periodically in Currents. Terry Powell, Berkeley Lab's community relations coordinator, can be reached at X4387 or by e-mail at [email protected].


Postdoctoral Society Organizes Workshops On Writing and Career Development

A series of five workshops on effective communication and career development--Effective Science Writing, Academic Job Search, Grant Writing, Non-academic Job Search, and Public Speaking--are being sponsored by the LBNL Postdoctoral Society and the UCB Graduate Division between now and July. Introductory remarks will be given by Deputy Director Pier Oddone at the first workshop on March 27.

The workshops are free of charge and open to all Lab employees. Pre-registration is required and enrollment is accepted on a first-come-first-serve basis. The registration deadline for the first workshop (March 27 and 28) is March 14. More information is available on the web at ~postdoc/. To obtain a registration form send e-mail to [email protected].

Effective Science Writing Workshop

The first workshop on "Effective Science Writing" will be held on both March 27 and March 28 in the Bldg. 66 auditorium from 9 a.m. to noon and/or 2 to 5 p.m (depending on interest and response). Judith Swan, co-author of "Scientific Writing," will discuss written information from the point of view of readers of the scientific literature. Topics will include writing grant proposals, articles, and research summaries, as well as preparing posters and lectures. The workshop is appropriate for scientists at all levels.


Courier Available 24 Hours a Day

IDS Couriers, the Lab's contract courier service, operates 24 hours a day and provides pick-up and delivery service anywhere in the Bay Area and in portions of northern and central California. Delivery time can range from two or four hours, to same day, rush, or scheduled service.

Special rates are available for the Laboratory. For service, call 548-3263 with pick-up/delivery locations, time requirements, and a valid Lab account number. For further information, call Linda Wright at the same number.


Currents Online

The full text as well as photographs of each edition of Currents are also published on the World Wide Web. You can find a link to Currents on the Lab's home page (http:// under the heading "Publications." The site allows users to do searches of past articles.

To set up your computer to access the web, call the Mac and PC Support Group at X6858.


Black History Month

In recognition of Black History Month, storyteller Marijo was invited back to the Lab on Tuesday, Feb. 24, and delighted her audience with African American folklore. "It's easy to get caught up in her lyricism and rhythm," said Mark Covington, chair of the African American Employees Association. What's more, Marijo encouraged audience participation. Students from St. Joseph the Worker School in Berkeley provided a rhythmic background with various African instruments as Marijo wove her theme of individualism, ancestry and heritage into her story. "She's energetic and expressive," said Rachel McGee of Facilities. The 100 students in the audience thought the same.

--Contributed by Jacqueline Noble

Photo: Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt (XBD9802-00257-03)


Proposals Sought for FY 1999 Lab Directed R&D Program

Director Charles Shank has issued the call for proposals for the FY 1999 Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program, which provides support for projects in forefront areas of science that can enrich Berkeley Lab R&D capabilities and achievements.

Proposals are encouraged that fit in with the Laboratory's strategic directions. A special area of emphasis will be the continued building of computer and computational science in the research divisions, and projects which continue to build the scientific productivity at the Advanced Light Source.

Multi-investigator and multi-divisional initiatives that attack problems of scale are likewise encouraged. As in the past, some outstanding single-investigator research projects will also be funded.

A call for proposals has been distributed to division directors and administrators. Principal investigators must submit proposals to division directors by Friday, April 24. After conducting an internal review and evaluation, division directors will forward the proposals to the Director's Office. Division directors will then present the proposals from their divisions to review committees composed of the director, deputy directors, associate laboratory director, and other division directors. The director will make the final decisions.

The call for proposals and forms are available on the Lab's home page at


Fish Ranch Road May Be Closed for Months

Stuck in traffic? Join the club. Unfortunately, no relief seems to be in sight for Lab commuters facing daily traffic nightmares on Gayley Road. According to a spokesperson for the Contra Costa County's Maintenance department, Fish Ranch Road, which leads up to Highway 24, is closed due to an active slide approximately 1000 feet south of Grizzly Peak Blvd.

Repairs will take "at least six to eight months," the spokesperson said. Stay tuned and stay cool. And consider alternate means of commuting (BART, car-pools, alternate routes.)


Lab's Site Access Department Has New Website

Berkeley Lab's Site Access Department can now be reached online at The website includes information regarding ID/proximity cards, building access and managers, gate passes, parking (general information, maps and forms) and shuttle bus service.


Computer and EH&S Class Schedules & Registration Available Online

All information regarding Oracle and AIM computer training, as well as EH&S classes, can now be found online at the websites listed below. Information on the web includes schedules, class description, and online registration.

Oracle classes:

AIM Computer Training:

EH&S Classes:


MARCH 1998


Music Club
General meeting, noon, lower cafeteria


African American Employees Association
General Meeting, noon, Bldg. 90-1099

7:30 a.m.-4:30 p.m., Bldg. 54 parking lot


LBNL Postdoctoral Society
Workshop on "Effective Science Writing,"
9 a.m-noon and/or 2-5 p.m., Bldg. 66 auditorium


LBNL Postdoctoral Society
Workshop on "Effective Science Writing,"
9 a.m-noon and/or 2-5 p.m., Bldg. 66 auditorium

Items for the calendars may be sent via e-mail to currents_calendar@, faxed to X6641 or mailed to Bldg. 65B. The deadline for the March 20 issue is 5 p.m. Monday, March 16.


Seminars & Lectures

MARCH 9, Monday

UCB Physics Department Colloquium
"Charged-Particle Acceleration by Magnetic-Field-Aligned Electric Fields" will be presented by Robert Ergun of the Space Sciences Laboratory, UC Berkeley.
4:30 p.m., 1 LeConte Hall

"Electronic, Geometric, and Optical Properties of Ultrathin MBE-Prepared Organic Films" will be presented by Rainer Fink of Universitat Wurzburg, Germany.
3:30 p.m., Bldg. 2-100B

MARCH 10, Tuesday

Life Sciences Division Seminar
"Multiple Functions of the cCAF Chemokine: Implications for Wound Healing & Disease" will be presented by Manuela Martins-Green of UC Riverside.
4 p.m., Bldg. 84-318

Physics Division Research Progress Meeting
"Theories with Gauge-Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking" will be presented by Gian Guidice of CERN.
4 p.m., Bldg. 50A-5132. Refreshments at 3:40 p.m.

MARCH 12, Thursday

Surface Science and Catalysis Science Seminar
"Characterization and Reduction of Defects on Compact Disc Surfaces" will be presented by C. Knight of General Electric Company, Schenectady, New York.
1:30 p.m., Bldg. 66 auditorium

Environmental Energy Technologies Division Seminar
"Window Labeling" will be presented by Peter Lyons of the EET Division.
Noon, Bldg. 90-3148

MARCH 16, Monday

UCB Physics Department Colloquium
"Reminiscences of the Cavendish Laboratory in the 1930's" will be presented by Maurice Goldhaber of Brookhaven National Laboratory.
4:30 p.m., 1 LeConte Hall

MARCH 17, Tuesday

Center for Environmental Biotechnology Seminar
"Development of Biocatalysts for In Situ Remediation of TCE" will be presented by Mary DeFlaun of Envirogen, Inc.
Noon, 338 Koshland Hall, UC Berkeley campus

Physics Division Research Progress Meeting
"The Status of Lattice QCD" will be presented by Stephen Sharpe of the University of Washington.
4 p.m., Bldg. 50A-5132. Refreshments at 3:40 p.m.

MARCH 19, Thursday

Environmental Energy Technologies Division Seminar
"Using Bamboo in Building Construction" will be presented by Darrel DeBoer of DeBoer Architects, Alameda.
Noon, Bldg. 90-3148

MARCH 20, Friday

Earth Sciences Seminar
"Three-Dimensional Dispersion Transport for TOUGH2" will be presented by Yu-Shu Wu of the Earth Sciences Division.
11 a.m. Bldg. 90-2063


March EH&S Class Schedule

Pre-registration is required for all courses except EHS 010 (Introduction to EH&S). To pre-register for classes send name, employee ID number, extension, course title, EH&S course code, and date of course by regular mail to EH&S Training, 90-0026, Room 16C, or by e-mail to [email protected]; fax: X4805; phone: X7366. You may register online at


Flea Market

Autos / Supplies

`76 DATSUN B210, 2 dr, 161K mi, $700/b.o., Liliana, 655-6855

`85 HONDA CRX, Sport Injection, 40+ mpg, 73K mi, perfect exterior, great interior, ultra dependable, starts instantly from -20 to over 100 F, high alt to Death Valley, cassette, stereo, a/c, cloth seats, loaded, $5250 if paid for by 4/1, Bruce, X5489, 704-0559

`86 DODGE Caravan SE, 7 passenger van, 13K mi, a/t, a/c, good cond, avail end of March, $3100, Denis, X7573, 280-9092

`89 HUNDAI Excel GL, 4 dr sedan, 5 spd, a/c, radio + cassette, 77K mi, new exhaust, clutch & battery, runs great, $1500/b.o., Fredrik, X4025, 524-1375

`91 NISSAN Maxima, automatic, loaded, exc cond, $8800, Teresa, X6615, 243-1351

CAB OVER CAMPER, 10.5 ft, fully self-contained, shower-toilet, heater, refrig w/freezer, 30 gal water storage, twin propane bottles, sliding front window, jacks incl, sleeps 4, plenty of storage, new floor & front, 4 burner stove & oven, hook-up for 110 & water, $1500/b.o., Alyce, X4091


ALAMEDA, 1 rm in 4 bdrm house shared w/3 other professionals, rm is only bdrm on ground fl, own bath, share kitchen & living rm, Jacuzzi, laundry, cable, util incl, ample st parking, $425/mo, avail immediately, Raechelle, 435-0570

ALBANY, 1 bdrm in 2 bdrm furn house, clean, quiet, good neighborhood, close to public trans & shopping, 10 min from UCB, avail June (negotiable), $500/mo, Peter, 527-8115

BERKELEY HILLS, 1 bdrm in-law apt, spacious, fully furn, recently remodeled, marble bthrm, private patio, $895 + util, Helga, 524-8308

BERKELEY, northside, furn rm in 4 bdrm house, 5 blks from UCB, nr LBNL shuttle, 2 other visiting scholars live here, $550 + util, Luis, 548-1287


BED, twin captain's, maple w/storage drawer or trundle bed underneath, $95; twin mattress, firm, $25; Scandinavian design desk components in beech, two, 63 inch desk tops, $45 ea; 54 inch desk top, $45; corner desk, $15; rolling typing table, $30; hutch top, $45; four-drawer units, $60; sm wooden dresser, $15; med-size electric baseboard space heater, $55; extra long couch w/ottoman, off-white tweed, good cond and comfortable, $85 or free to non-profit org, Chris, X5507, 845-3562

BICYCLE, BMX, kid's chrome colored Robinson SST, Chromoly frame & fork, GT Mohawk hubs, 20 inch rims, under 1 yr old & in great cond, $125, Scott, X4103

BIKE, Huffy Mtn, `97, $80, Fredrik, X4025, 524-1375

BIKE, Mtn, Gary Fisher, 3 mos old, frame 15.5", new gears to turn w/the hands (not to push), sold w/lock "Kryptonite," front light, pump & accessories, $270, Jamele, X5446

BOOK CASES, Barrister, 33"x59", oak w/glass fronts, sold as a set of 4, $300, Carol, 528-0683

CHAIR, arm, blue blk metal frame, $25 new; kitchen table + 4 chairs, $65; green old arm chair, $10; twin bed + mattress, $50; dresser, $15, Ron, X5453, 204-9332

COMPUTER, 486-80 Mhz, 32 Mb RAM, 850 Mb HDD, 4x CD-ROM Gravis Ultrasound Max, S3 Level 12 3 Mb, floppy, kbd, mouse, speakers, runs Win95+ Office 95 well, $500, Keith, X4829

DRESSERS, 2 oak: 3 drawer, $50; 6 drawer, $75; matching night stands, $25 ea; 6' blue/gray sofa bed, $75; electric Maytag dryer, $75; Brazilian mahogany, China cabinet, $150; Playskool turtle sandbox and slide, $15 ea; dynamic skis, ski rack, tire chains, b.o., Natalie, X6380

GOLF CLUBS, King Snake, lefties, graphite shaft, 2 through PW w/bag, great shape, $200/b.o., Don, X4224, 372-9168

LAB SPACE, will share 900-1400 sq ft of ours (1800 sq ft total), nr 4th st, Berkeley, or sublet 400-800 sq ft of yours offsite, David, 841-6761

LATHE wood, bench mount, 27"c-to-c, 7" swing, 54" long, b.o.; drum stainless steel, 55 gal, DOT 16 w/lid, $275, Paul, X4177, 682-8872

LIVING RM FURNITURE set, 5 pc solid oak, exc cond, display cases, drawers, glass cabinets, bar cabinet & more, $2000; sofa & love seat, carved solid oak, antique, beautiful upholstery, exc cond, $1200, matching oak coffee table, $150; 5 pc solid mahogany bdrm set, queen size bedboards, 2 night tables, dresser, mirror, $1000/b.o; entryway solid oak mirrored hat/coat/umbrella rack, 7'x3'x2', mirrored top to bottom, antique style, $350/b.o.; solid oak bookshelf, 7'x2.5', 7 adjustable shelves, exc cond, $175/b.o; woven country style oval rug, 6'x10', exc cond, $250/b.o.; 30 gal fish tank, incl lights, heater, therm, waterfall filter system, cool rocks, vacuum cleaning, chem supply, plants + more, $85; Susan, 548-9315

MATTRESS, full, very good cond, $40/b.o., Grazyna, X7128, 524-8373

MOTORCYCLE, Honda Hawk, 1980 CB400, fair cond, 2 helmets, manual, battery charger & more extras, good around town/new rider, $450/b.o.; desk, steelcase w/drawers on both sides & center; white halogen lamp, 6', b.o., Derek, X6683, 486-0524

POTS, flower, clay & plastic, plywood, folding garden chairs, lawn sprinklers, Herb, 232-0757

SAILBOAT, Sunfish, `93 w/trailer & some accessories, exc cond, white & aqua, has never sailed in salt water, $1800/b.o., John, 531-1739, evenings

SEARAY Cruiser, `82, 22.5 ft, SRV225, 260 Merc outdrive, sleeps 4, head, galley, 310 hrs, delta canvas, vhf, depth sounder, trim tabs, very good cond, incl Trailrite tandem axle trailer, b.o., Bob, 376-2211

SNOW SKIS, Rossi Quantum 195cm, $95; ski boots, men's, size 9, like new, $75; ski suit, Rolfe men's lg (never used), $95, Steve, X6598, 689-7213

TONER, fax machine, OkiFax 2000, 2100/2100+ & 2300, send us a carton of Xerox paper, Linda, X4787

TOWEL rack, brass tubing, 6 ft high, made to fit over toilet in bth, $30/b.o., Marlene, X6005

TV, 13" GE color w/remote, cable ready, antenna, exc cond, 1 yr old, $85; giant Perigee touring bicycle, exc cond, 2 yrs old, $125, Steve, X4189

TV, 19" Quasar color TV, good cond, $50, Evan, X7559

WORK STATION, HP-712, 15" color monitor, 32 MB RAM, 3.5 Gig SCSI-II Hard Drive, CD-ROM, HP-Fortran, GNU-G++ & other shareware installed, $2999/b.o., Mark, X2378

Real Estate

CONDOMINIUM, North Berkeley, 1 bdrm apt in sm bldg, nr campus & LBNL, quiet, hardwood floors, lg living rm w/French doors opening to sm deck, dining area, fireplace, carport parking, $165,000 w/realtor, $160,000 w/o realtor, Steve, X6941


BAHAMAS, Taino Beach Resort, nr Freeport, 1 bdrm condo, sleeps 4, pool/tennis, on beach, maid service, $500/wk, Marlene, X6005

HAWAII, unfurn, 2 bdrm, 2 bth house, 20 mi below Hilo on rainy side of big Island, convenient to Univ of Hawaii campus & orchid plantations, $450/mo; possible lease-option to buy for $58,000, nr schools, shopping, 1 mi to ocean bluff, Marlene, X6005

TAHOE KEYS at So Lake Tahoe, house, 3 bdrm, 2.5 bth, on the water, fenced yard, quiet area, close to skiing & other attractions, great views of water & mountains, $125/night, 2 night min, Bob 376-2211


ACCOMMODATIONS for visiting scientist and wife and single visiting scientist, 4/15-5/15, nr LBNL or downtown, Wladyslaw, X5536

BASSIST, classic-rock/blues rooted orig/cvrs; drums, guitar seek consistent feel w/creative input, 1/wk, space in Pittsburg, most equipment & some rough ideas, Marc, 229-2592

EXCHANGE, visiting scientist and family from Paris hopes to exchange housing w/LBNL family w/home in Berkeley area who wish to stay in Paris area for 2 yr beg 8/98, Marcella, X6304

HOUSING, visiting researcher fm. Mexico coming in early April, seeking a 1 bdrm. apt to share or sublet w/other female researchers/grad student, $350-550/mo, 486-5137 N. Martin, sponsor, [email protected]

HOUSING, for LBNL Spanish visitor w/wife & two children ages 3 & 5, approx 1 year from 4/15, [email protected]

HOUSING, North Berkeley, 1 or 2 bdrm, furn apt or rooms w/kitchen privileges 4/1-8/1 for visiting Dutch UN official/international law scholar & wife, good access to campus, Senta 524-4654

MAC II ci w/cd-rom, color monitor, extra memory, $300, John, X6533, 849-1051

ROCKING CHAIR, sliding, for soon-to-be new mom, Andrea, 843-3003

SOFTWARE, educational, MAC, system 5 or lower, Margaret, 637-1892

STUDIO/COTTAGE APT, quiet, safe neighborhood, for non-smoker, begin April, $500, Rebecca, X4329, 530-5196

WASHING MACHINE, baby crib, stroller, pine wood kingsize bedframe, table cabinets, etc, Uwe, X6094

Lost and Found

EARRING, shape of a turtle, green w/brown, 2", lost 2/19 walking to Bldg. 65 shuttle from Bldg. 46, about 3 p.m., Margo, X6280

READING GLASSES, gray steel frames, magenta shimmering case, lost bet bldg. 85 & 76, Ginny, X7413


CAT, black & white, female, small, spayed, all shots, Ginny, X7413

ORGANIZER, Electronic, Sharp, hand held w/organizer link to PC (cable & DOS software), 64K, keyboard/built in software, needs batteries, David, X7074

Vanpool/Riders Wanted

RIDER/DRIVER from Dublin (San Ramon & Pleasanton area) to LBNL, work hrs: M-F, 7-3:30, Calvin, X5562, 828-0306

FLEA MARKET items may be e-mailed to fleamarket@, faxed to X6641, or mailed to Bldg. 65B. The deadline for the March 20 issue is 5 p.m. Friday, March 16.




Flea Market ad policy

Due to the large volume of ads received each week, ads are accepted only from LBNL employees, retirees, and on-site DOE personnel. No other ads will be accepted. We encourage past contributors to the Flea Market to use other local services, such as LBNL's online housing listing (call X6198 for information), and the UC Housing Office.

Please note also: