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Berkeley Lab Currents

June 14, 1996


Fuel cell breakthrough doubles performance, reduces cost

By Jeffery Kahn

Solving a vexing materials obstacle, Materials Sciences Division researchers report they have made an important breakthrough in the effort to build an affordable commercial fuel cell.

Fuel cells, which transform hydrocarbons into electricity without combustion, are highly fuel-efficient and almost nonpolluting. But the cost to build them has been a barrier to broad commercialization. Other than for a few demonstration projects, their use to generate electricity and to power vehicles has not been practical.

Scientists at Berkeley Lab have focused on solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), which have been on the verge of commercial viability for years. Using a deceptively simple ceramic process, they have developed a new thin-film electrolyte that both doubles the power output and significantly reduces the cost of SOFCs.

Said researcher Steve Visco, "We have developed a low-cost means of fabricating a high-performance cell. In one fell swoop, we have increased performance and reduced cost. Undoubtedly, this should accelerate the commercialization of SOFCs."

Visco and division colleagues Selmar de Souza and Lutgard De Jonghe published the details of their work recently in the proceedings of the European Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Forum. Their research is funded by the Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute.

Like other fuel cell types, SOFCs produce electricity by electrochemically combining hydrogen with oxygen. All fuel cells can run on natural gas, but some require that the gas be preprocessed first (reformed), providing a supply of hydrogen to the cell. Some high-temperature cells, like SOFCs, don't require this expensive pretreatment; they can "burn" natural gas directly.

Up until now, SOFCs have been most fuel-efficient operating at 1000 degrees centigrade. Unfortunately, this high temperature increases the cost of materials and decreases the lifetime of the cell. For some years, researchers around the world have been on a quest to drop the operating temperature without sacrificing performance. They have been stumped.

Says de Souza, "SOFCs are solid-state devices. We know how to drop their operating temperature but the problem has been the electrolyte. It conducts ions between electrodes, and when you drop the temperature you lose conductivity (and electrical output drops). One way to deal with this is by making the electrolyte thinner."

Like researchers elsewhere, scientists here have looked for a way to thin down the electrolyte, from a 100 micron film down to about 10 microns. In theory, this should allow the cell to operate at 800 degrees centigrade without any loss in performance. Thinner electrolytes, lower temperatures, cheaper materials -- this has been the recipe for a commercial-grade SOFC.

"Researchers have tried multiple approaches to come up with a thin electrolyte that still is functional," said De Jonghe. "Magnetron sputtering, plasma spray, chemical vapor deposition, electrochemical vapor deposition -- any number of expensive, high-tech approaches have not worked out."

Visco, de Souza and De Jonghe hit paydirt with an inexpensive and simple ceramic process. They have devised a technique that doesn't just preserve performance at the lower temperature of 800 degrees but actually doubles the power output.

The team reports that cells with the new, ultra-thin ceramic electrolyte generate two watts per square centimeter of cell surface area. This is double the record power for SOFCs. Additionally, during testing, the electrical output remains absolutely constant over 700 hours. While no guarantee that the cell can last the five to ten years necessary for commercial purposes, the test results are extremely promising.

Berkeley Lab's electrolyte, an yttria-stabilized zirconia film, starts out as a ceramic powder suspended in solution. Much like a latex paint, the solution is painted onto the anode (electrode) and then fired or sintered. The process readily lends itself to assembly line usage.

The research team says that though they always believed the approach had merit, success had been elusive.

The anode that is painted must be porous in order to allow for the flow of hydrogen. Paints want to fill and plug up these pores rather than to sit up on top of the porous anode. When the anode and ceramic coat are sintered, both shrink. Unless they shrink in unison, the ceramic cracks or pinholes form.

With concerted effort over the past three years, the researchers ultimately hit upon the right combination of ceramic powders and processing.

They modified the processing of both the anode and the electrolyte. And they found a materials match-up that will help push the fuel cell out of the laboratory and into the energy marketplace.

"Like many things," said Visco, "once you know how, it's a relatively simple process."

CAPTION: Materials Sciences researcher Steve Visco (left), holding a prototype of a new high-performance single fuel cell, with fellow researchers Lutgard De Jonghe and Selmar de Souza. De Souza is holding the fuel cell testing setup. Photo by Joe Moore


Updated Table of Isotopes a valuable tool for nuclear scientists

Long awaited eighth edition now available on interactive CD-ROM

by Allan Chen

Nuclear scientists have learned a great deal about the properties of thousands of isotopes over the years, and both the list and the knowledge of their properties continues to grow. The standard reference for such nuclear science data is called the Table of Isotopes, a comprehensive database of nuclear structure and decay data for virtually every isotope known. John Wiley & Sons has just published the Table's eighth edition, edited by a team of scientists led by Richard Firestone at Berkeley Lab's Nuclear Science Division. Firestone is a member of the Division's Isotopes Project.

The 20-pound, two-volume eighth edition compiles information on 3,138 isotopes and isomers in about as many pages, and has twice as much data as the previous edition, which was published in 1978. "For the first time," says Firestone, "the Table includes a CD-ROM with the same information as the book, encoded in an Adobe Acrobat document--possibly the largest to date using this software--with 100,000 hypertext links." PCs, Macs and UNIX workstations can all read the CD-ROM, and this version contains a chart of the nuclides, a graphical index and separate indices organized for radioisotope users and nuclear structure physicists. The current document has burgeoned in size from a 70-page, pocket-sized first edition of the Table authored by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1940 and published by the journal Chemical Reviews.

Firestone co-edited the Table with Virginia Shirley, also of the Nuclear Science Division, who died shortly before the eighth edition's publication. Shirley had worked on three previous editions of the Table. The other members of the editing team are Coral M. Baglin, S.Y. Frank Chu and Jean Zipkin, all with the Division's Isotopes Project Group.

The five-year effort to put together a new edition of the Table began with the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF), a database maintained by the National Nuclear Data Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory. An international network of 15 data centers including Berkeley Lab contributes to this database, which compiles information from more than 140,000 published references. The Table cites about 24,000 of these. Firestone designed software to generate Postscript files of tables and drawings containing the numeric data. "However," he says, "a lot of human effort went into updating, proofreading and fact-checking the material's accuracy."

"The 14,000-page CD-ROM is designed to publish the material compactly in a form easily readable on a desktop computer," says Firestone. The tables are color-coded and rearranged for easier reading. Hyperlinks help users get to related information quickly, and users can clip and paste data into other documents. The CD-ROM contains complete reference titles and abstracts and the complete ENSDF database for use with other software such as VuENSDF, which is under development by the Isotopes Project. The Table also has an expanded set of appendices with information about different properties: chemical data, physical constants, standard calibration sources, atomic data, nuclear moments, and nuclear structure information of isotopes. "Some people get the books just for the appendices," says Firestone.

Nuclear and high-energy physicists and astronomers are not the only ones who use the Table. Biological and medical scientists in fields like health physics, nuclear medicine, radiochemistry and environmental engineering need radiation data as well. Until now, new editions of the Table have averaged about seven years between publications (18 years since the last one). But now, with the help of CD-ROM technology, the editorial team plans to publish an updated version every year.

More information about the Table of Isotopes is available at the following Web site:

CAPTION: Richard Firestone (left) and S.Y. Frank Chu with the eighth edition of the Table of Isotopes, now available for the first time on CD-ROM. As knowledge of isotope properties has grown through the years, the volumes of the Table, arranged chronologically from right to left, have also expanded. The CD ROM holds 14,000 pages of material. Photo by Joe Moore


Asian-American Heritage Month

CAPTION: Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni, an award-winning Bay Area poet, visited the Lab May 28 to discuss her first work of fiction, Arranged Marriage. A collection of short stories depicting the challenges faced by Indian women in America, her book has won two Bay Area awards for best fiction. Her presentation combined lecture, readings, and discussion with the audience, which included many of the Lab's own Indian and Indian-American staff members. Divakaruni was born in India and moved to the U.S. to go to college, eventually earning a Ph.D. in English from UC Berkeley. She teaches creative writing at Foothill College and works extensively with South Asian women refugees and abuse victims. Her presentation was part of the Laboratory's celebration of Asian American Heritage Month.


Courier service

IDS Couriers is the Lab's contract courier service, operating 24 hours a day with pick-up and delivery service anywhere in the Bay Area. For service, call 548-3263 with pick-up/delivery locations, time requirements, and a valid Lab account number.




In a report on lessons learned from the termination of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), auditors for DOE's Inspector General point to sharp differences between the cost estimates of the project contractor and those of an independent estimator as a major cause behind the project's demise. The Universities Research Association, the DOE contractor in charge of the project, estimated the cost of building the SSC as $8.2 billion. An independent analysis put this cost at $11.8 billion. DOE relied on the lower estimate. The problem, said IG auditors, was that URA excluded such major project costs as the two mammoth detectors. This and other discrepancies made the SSC a ripe target for Congressional opponents. IG auditors also faulted DOE for failing to put in place a dependable cost and schedule control system without which DOE could not measure performance or rising costs against a baseline. The IG report recommended that future funding from all sources be secured at the start of a project. DOE counted on the state of Texas and foreign governments for contributions that never materialized. The report also criticized DOE for insufficient project oversight, a decision made by former Energy Secretary James Watkins.

Martha Krebs, head of the Office of Energy Research, and Donald Pearman, associate secretary for field management, agreed in a written response with many of the report's conclusions, but criticized it for not telling the whole story. Many of the cost increases were the result of stretched-out schedules caused by funding shortfalls. Vacillating Congressional support not only caused the project's completion date to slip from 1999 to 2002, it also discouraged potential foreign contributions. Watkins' decision to sidestep the customary oversight procedures also hampered DOE from taking the corrective actions that would normally have occurred. Krebs and Pearman said the most important lesson to be learned from the SSC disaster is that a "cooperative team spirit" between DOE and its contractors is crucial to getting the job done. Copies of the IG audit may be obtained by calling Wilma Slaughter at 202-586-1924.


The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility at Newport News, Virginia, has been renamed. It will now be known as the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.


Last month at a major genome research gathering in Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y., two groups presented the results of their studies into the question: How many genes does an organism need to survive? One group concluded that life on earth today can be sustained with only 250 genes. This represents an advance in complexity, they say, from the 128 genes needed to sustain Earth's earliest life forms. A second group, however, set the minimum number of required genes for a simple parasite at 800 and said that anything less than 100 would not suffice. The human genome is estimated to contain between 75,000 and 100,000 genes. Despite the differences, genetic researchers agree that science is at last beginning to get a handle on life's crucial genetic components.


Currents ONLINE

The full text of each edition of Currents is published on the Lab's home page on the World Wide Web. View it at under "Research News and Publications." To set up your computer to access the World Wide Web, call the Mac and PC Support Group at X6858.


Martha Krebs visits Laboratory

CAPTION: Martha Krebs, Director of the Office of Energy Research, visited Berkeley Lab on Wednesday to be briefed on the Lab's latest scientific computing effort, and to tour the area being developed to house the new supercomputers. With her are (left to right) Associate Lab Director for Computing Sciences Bill McCurdy, Director of NERSC Horst Simon, Networking and Telecommunications Head Jim Leighton, and Director Charles Shank. Photo by Don Fike


June 17-28



"The Promoting Effect of Nobel Metal Addition on Niobia-Supported

Cobalt Catalysts" will be presented by Martin Schmal of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, at 1:30 p.m. in the Bldg. 66 Auditorium.


"Interactions of Prolactin and Growth Hormone in the Regulation of Mammary Cell Function" will be presented by David Flint of the Hannah Research Institute, Scotland, at 4 p.m. in Bldg. 66-316.


Classical Group Rehearsal, 5-7 p.m. in the cafeteria, for info. contact Wesley Steele at X7893.



Introduction to EH&S Safety at LBNL (EHS 010), 9:30 a.m.-noon, Bldg. 66 Auditorium.

Chemical Hygiene and Safety Training (EHS 348), 1-4 p.m., Bldg. 51-201.


LBNL/MELVYL Catalogs Training at 3 p.m. in Bldg. 62-339.


"Real-World Emissions from Malfunctioning Passenger Cars" will be presented by Tom Wenzel of LBNL at 3:45 p.m. in Bldg. 90-4133; refreshments, 3:30 p.m.


"1995 LEP Energy Calibration" will be presented by Kin Yip of the University of Oxford at 4 p.m. in Bldg. 50A-5132; refreshments, 3:40 p.m.



In support of Gay Pride Month (June) Earnest Hite, Education Director of the AIDS Project of the East Bay, will be talking about AIDS awareness at noon in the Bldg. 50 Auditorium. The AIDS Project provides education and support services for those affected by HIV.


General meeting at 12:10 p.m. in Bldg. 2-100, election of new officers.


Folk Group Rehearsal, 5:30-7:30 p.m. in the cafeteria, for info. contact Larry Bell at X5406.



Adult CPR (EHS 123), 9 a.m.-noon, Bldg. 48-109.


LBNL/MELVYL Catalogs Training at 11 a.m. in Bldg. 50-134.


"Decisions, Decisions.... Can Computers Make a Difference? The Building Design Advisor" will be presented by Konstantinos Papamichael of LBNL at noon in Bldg. 90-3148.


"Distributed Knowledge Systems for the Life Sciences and Living Knowledge Systems for Distributed Sciences" will be presented by Joseph Deken of UCSD at noon in Bldg. 50B-6208.


The video "Right to Marry" will be shown at noon in Bldg. 51-201.


"B Semileptonic Decay Problem - New Results From CLEO" will be presented by Youngjoon Kwon of CLEO at 4 p.m. in Bldg. 50A-5131; refreshments, 3:40 p.m.


Rock Group Rehearsal, 5:30-7:30 p.m. in the cafeteria, for info. contact Steve Blair at X5927.



"Interaction of Relativistic Electrons with Ultrahigh Intensity Photon Fields" will be presented by Fred Hartemann of UCD at 10:30 a.m. in the Bldg. 71 conference room.



7:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m. near Bldg. 77.


"Germany's Future Energy Policy - Potential Scope and Areas of Action for Rational Energy Use and Renewable Energies" will be presented by Ole Langniss of the Institute for Technical Thermodynamics, Stuttgart, Germany, at 3:45 p.m. in Bldg. 90-3148; refreshments, 3:30 p.m.


Classical Group Rehearsal, 5-7 p.m. in the cafeteria, for info. contact Wesley Steele at X7893.



Current Contents Training at 11 a.m. in Bldg. 50-134


"Transcriptional Control of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation into Adipocytes" will be presented by Stephen Farmer of the Boston University School of Medicine at 4 p.m. in the Bldg. 66 Auditorium.



Building Emergency Team Training (EHS 154), 9-11:30 a.m., Bldg. 48-109.


Folk Group Rehearsal, 5:30-7:30 p.m. in the cafeteria, for info. contact Larry Bell at X5406.



"High Efficiency Green and Blue Light Emitting Diodes" will be presented by Joel Ager of LBNL at noon in Bldg. 90-3148.


"Micro-Scale Redox-Dependent Segregation of Selenium in Sediments" will be presented by Tetsu Tokunaga of LBNL at noon in Bldg. 50A-5132.


"Being Gay in Business and Politics in Berkeley" will be presented by Jeffrey Shattuck Leiter at noon in the Bldg. 50 Auditorium. Leiter is a former Mayor of Berkeley and now serves as the Chairman and C.E.O. of M.K. Blake Estate. He is also a co-founder of the Berkeley Community Fund.


Current Contents Training at 3 p.m. in Bldg. 62-339.


Rock Group Rehearsal, 5:30-7:30 p.m. in the cafeteria, for info. contact Steve Blair at X5927.




Library database training

The LBNL Library will be offering database training sessions covering the following: 1) LBNL and MELVYL catalogs for locating books, journals and other library resources and 2) Current Contents including basic MELVYL commands and overview of several advanced MELVYL search options. These are small group sessions which will last 15-20 minutes.

Please contact Jhane Beck, X4622, for more information.



Flea Market ads may be sent via e-mail to [email protected], Fax to X6641, or Lab mail to Bldg. 65B. The deadline is 5 p.m. Friday.


'73 DODGE van, 1/2 ton, a/t, p/s, p/b, reblt eng., white/blue top, $1500/b.o. 558-9212

'82 HONDA Accord, 4-dr, silver, 5-spd, AM/FM cass., a/c, p/s, p/b, cc, 125K mi., extremely clean, meticulously maintained, Michelin tires, all records, new upholstery, clutch, timing belt, alternator, water pump, valves, no leaks, orig. paint in great cond., blue book $3875, $2899/b.o. Werner, X4549, 849-9766

'86 PLYMOUTH Colt DL, 3-dr hatchbk, a/c, a/t, p/s, AM/FM stereo, 67K mi., 30-33 mpg, runs great, $2500/b.o. X4788

'92 ACURA Integra LS, 38K mi., 3-dr, 5-spd, red, pwr windows, sunrf & mirrors, cruise control, AM/FM stereo cass., $11.5K/b.o. 848-6821


CARPOOL, short term ride (until 7/5) from SF to Berkeley/LBNL and/or back to SF. Ricky, X6972, (415) 923-0538 (eve.)

VANPOOL, rider wanted, from Larkspur to LBNL/UCB. Nobu, X4585


APPLE POWERBOOK 170, 4MB RAM 40 hard drive, Global Village Teleport Gold, carrying case, word-processing, Microsft Works, address book & calendar installed, $900/b.o. Dan or Cindy, (415) 648-8250

ARMOIRE, Pulaski reproduction, solid oak, 4' x 6', beautiful cond., $435; bike, men's 10-spd, Nishiki Royale, exc. cond., $75; washer/dryer, Kenmore washer, heavy duty, Whirlpool dryer, lg. cap., both elec., great cond., avail. 6/30, $350/pr. 778-7133

ARMOIRE, rough, $35; queen sz. futon mattress, $30. 204-9685

BOOKSHELF, 27"x69", white w/birch trim, $20; futon, 60" wide, rose cover, $15; futon frame, sofa-style, queen sz., light wood, needs some repair, $20/b.o.; black plastic staking CD (4) & cass. (2) racks, like new, $5 ea. David, X6171

BOAT, '93 Sea Ray, w/carrier, 23' 10", spacious 240 over-nighter, slps 4-5, cabin, V-berth which converts to a sleeper, wet bar & transom shower, ice box, running water, pump-out head, AM/FM stereo tape deck, storage, ski tow, swim ladder, removable canvas top, 70 gal. fuel cap., 8 gal. water cap., very low mi., $34K. Carl or Barbara, 436-7307 (eve.)

CAMERA BODY, under warranty, Canon Elan, auto focus, 35mm, Canon F1.8 50mm lens, both in exc. cond., $350. 841-6285

COLOR TV, GE, 19", 8 mo. old, like new, stereo, cable ready, remote control, moving, must sell, $200. X4464, 549-9907

DINING SET, 4 chairs & 48" octagonal table, Mediterranean wrought iron, great cond., $125; 2-person tent, never-used, external frame, still in box, $35; older 2-person tent, $10. 845-3562

FUTON, dbl, unfinished wood frame, incl. mattress cover, must go, $75/b.o. Josh, X4584

FUTON, incl. frame & cover, twin sz., $70; carpet & upholstery steamer, Bissell, $25. Fred or Nancy, 222-7788

FUTON, queen sz., black wooden frame, cover incl., must go, $100/b.o.; microwave, works fine, moving, must go, $25/b.o. Aindrea, X5946, 655-9989

GARAGE SALE, all-block, Sat., 6/15, 10 a.m.-2 p.m., 1800 block of San Lorenzo Ave., Berkeley

HIKING BOOTS, Merrell Challenge GTX, men's sz. 13, Gore Tex lining, air cushion sole, used once, $50. Ernesto, 643-8843

MOVING SALE, lamp from House of Lamps, brand new, $40; coffee table, brand new, $30; futon & frame, incl. 2 sm. pillows, brand new, $200; 6-drwr dresser & matching mirror, $50/b.o.; Hoover vacuum, $50. 848-9071

REEL-TO-REEL TAPE DECK, TEAC 4010SL, in working cond., w/tapes, $100. Chris, X5385

STEREO RECEIVER, Kenwood (KR-V87R), 80 watts/channel, surround sound, 7-band graphic equalizer w/remote, $100; VCR, Sharp (VC-A514U) mid-drive, 4-head, $100. Ravi, X6020

TELEVISION, 20" RCA w/remote, 1992 model, $150. Steve, X6966

WASHER, Maytag, heavy duty, lg. cap., white, exc. cond., $150; dryer, Whirlpool, Estate Series, 3-cycle, 5 temps., custom dry control, heavy duty, gd cond., $150. Swapan, X7217, 528-5325

YARD SALE, solid maple crib and/or 3-drwr dresser; Fisher Price high chair & baby gate; Grecko pack & play pen; booster seat; infant clothes & some toys; misc., 1496 Sonoma Ave., Albany, 6/15,
9 a.m.-noon. 528-4132


BERKELEY, nr city hall, BART & LBNL shuttle, 2-bdrm upper flat, lg. kitchen, freshly painted, deck w/view, 1 yr. lease, $1200/mo. 540-8421

BERKELEY, nr Oxford/Cedar, summer leases, furn. 1-bdrm apts, avail. 7/1-31 & 7/15 - 8/31, $785/mo.; 2-bdrm apt, avail. 7/1-31, $1200/mo. ($350/wk). 524-8122

BERKELEY, nr Oxford/Cedar, 1 yr. lease, furn. studio, avail. 9/1, $650/mo.; furn. 1-bdrm apts, $775-$835/mo.; furn. 2-bdrm, 2-bth apt, start in July & Aug., $1200/mo. 524-8122

BERKELEY HILLS, 5-bdrm house, walk to Lab & LHS, avail. 7/21 - 8/19, $1500. 704-0538

NO. BERKELEY, in-law apt, pvt. entrance, deck, nr public trans. & Solano shopping, non-smoker, avail. early July, $485/mo. incl. util. J. Klems, 528-9522

EL CERRITO HILLS, nr Kensington, 3-bdrm, 2-bth home, bay view, sauna, frpl, hardwd flrs, piano, deck, remodeled kitchen w/skylights, palm & fruit trees, min. 1 yr. lease, avail. 8/1, $1500/mo. w/gardener. 528-1614

MARTINEZ, 2-bdrm, 2-1/2 bth townhouse, 2-car garage w/opener, frpl, refrig., dishwasher, washer & dryer, patio, low maintenance, pool, tennis cts., no pets, ~30 min. from LBNL, avail. 7/1, $900/mo. + sec. 620-0129

OAKLAND HILLS, sunny rm in 5-bdrm villa, pvt. bth, bay view, hdwd, 2 marble frpl, 3 blks to Rockridge BART, W/D, NS, $500/mo. + util. David, X6082, 595-0737

WANTED: furn. 1-bdrm/studio/rm in house, Berkeley/Albany/Rockridge, for visiting scientist, 7/5 - 8/10, $400-$600 rent, willing to house-sit. Ricky, X6972, (415) 923-0538 (eve.)

WANTED: short term housing for German LBNL/ALS post-doc w/spouse, Aug. only. Winni, (+49)30 6879816, [email protected]

WANTED: 2-3 bdrm apt/house to rent for visiting scholar from Japan, for 1 yr. from Aug., $1K - $1.5K/mo. X6759

WANTED: 3-bdrm house in Orinda/Moraga/Lafayette general area, from end of Aug. for 1 yr., for visiting scientist from Korea, wife & 2 children (6th & 8th grades), prefer furn. Bertha/Madeleine, 642-9345

WANTED: 1-bdrm, cottage, apt or share, furn./unfurn., for LBNL employee, 7/1 or earlier. Steven, X6966, 204-9494


BERKELEY, 2-bdrm house, lg. yd, $189K. 527-2068

EL SOBRANTE, 2-bdrm, 1-1/2 bth townhouse, 2-car garage, 1234 sq. ft., asking $117K. Fred or Nancy, 222-7788


HIGH SIERRAS, 4-bdrm cabin, washer, dryer, deck, frpl, hiking, fishing, swimming, canoeing, 4 hr. from Berkeley, 1 hr. from Truckee, on Hwy. 49, for people who will take gd care of our vacation home, wk/wkends. Jane, 849-4096

MENDOCINO COUNTY, 2-bdrm, 2-bth country home on Greenwood Ridge nr Elk, set on 24 acres of redwood forest, panoramic views overlooking the Anderson Valley. Rose, 849-1726


CATS (2), females, both spayed & shots up-to-date, gray tabby, approx. 3 yr. old, "Bouncer"; brown/gray tabby, approx. 2 yr. old, very petite, "Ashes", both are indoors/outdoors, very loving & affectionate, were raised w/children, owners moving, need to find a gd home. 778-7133

CUSHIONS that make into dbl bed, gray; TV table; chest of drawers, sm., painted. 845-3562