December 1, 2000 Search the Currents Archive
A Hundred Million Transistors On One Computer Chip?

Bike to Work, But Don’t Gamble With Your Life
Bike Safety Tips

A Hundred Million Transistors on One Computer Chip?

Scientists take the mask off nanoscale lithography

By Paul Preuss

Ka-Ngo Leung of the Accelerator and Fusion Research Division at work on the Maskless Microbeam Lithography system. Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt

Challenge: the chips in today’s desktop PCs are built up from more than a dozen layers of material etched with electronic circuits. Each needs its own photomask to project the circuit pattern. How much time and expense could be saved if no masks were necessary?

Challenge: to adjust electronic properties, precise amounts of impurities ("do-pants"), must be introduced at different locations in the layers, often using ion beams to implant the dopants. What if the same beams that implant the ions could carve the layers of circuitry?

Challenge: today’s chips contain millions of elements with features as small as a fraction of a micrometer (millionths of a meter), projected by visible light. To pack in more elements, smaller features are needed. What’s the best technique for defining features smaller than a wavelength of visible light?

Ka-Ngo Leung of the Accelerator and Fusion Research Division (AFRD) is addressing these and other questions with ion-beam technology.

"Chip manufacturers hope to pack a hundred million transistors on a chip by 2005," says Leung, who is head of AFRD’s Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group and a professor in the Nuclear Engineering Department at UC Berkeley. "In five years or so, features as small as 100 nanometers will be common. We’re shooting for 50 nanometers" – 50 billionths of a meter.

Ions, usually atoms lacking one or more orbiting electrons, are particles with net electrical charge; they can be steered by electric and magnetic fields. All particles have an associated wavelength, and the equivalent wavelength of a typical ion beam is a more than a million times shorter than visible light.

Depending on the atomic species, ion beams can be used to dope semiconductors even as they carve out circuit patterns. What’s more, by using what Leung calls "dot-matrix on the nano-scale," he and his colleagues intend to use ion beams to do away with conventional lithography masks altogether.

Working with Tsu-Jae King, an associate professor of electrical engineering and computer science at UC Berkeley, and with graduate students Quing Ji, Vinh Ngo, and Karen Scott, Leung built the Maskless Microbeam Reduction Lithography system (MMRL) recently inaugurated by Lab Director Charles Shank and David Patterson of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, sponsor of the project (see Currents, Sept. 8).

In the MMRL, an ion source accelerates ions at precisely controlled energies through a "universal pattern generator," an array of fine holes, each a micrometer in diameter, in a compound electrode 40 micrometers thick. Each hole forms an ion beamlet which can be switched on or off to create any desired pattern. Instead of a dozen separate masks, a dozen different patterns can be programmed to quickly succeed one another.

The MMRL’s ion source produces ions with an energy of some 20 electron volts (20eV), compared to the whopping 10,000 electron-volt energies (10keV) required by the MMRL’s European competitor, an ion-lithography device made by a consortium headed by Infineon Technologies.

The pattern of beamlets that emerges from the MMRL’s pattern generator is focused down and reduced 10 times before it reaches the target wafer, compared to four times for the Siemens machine and others. "Presently we reduce the pattern 10 times to achieve features of 100 nanometers," says Leung. "Soon we’ll reduce it 20 times or more for 50-nanometer and smaller features."

He adds that "by using a multiplexing scheme, we’ve also simplified the pattern generator. Instead of one wire to each hole – that’s a lot of wires! – we control the array by wiring the holes together along the x axis in one layer and wiring them together along the y axis in a separate layer. For nine holes, that’s only six wires; for 100 holes, only 20 wires – in other words, we only need x-plus-y wires, not x-times-y wires."

Using a separate Focused Ion Beam (FIB) lithography system, Leung and King have precisely focused and scanned ion beams using lenses comprised of multiple electrodes. They are demonstrating "direct-write" processes with beams of oxygen, boron, and phosphorus, inscribing patterns directly on movable substrates or selectively doping the substrates.

By using several beams at once, Leung’s group can achieve much faster processing and higher "throughput," progress toward a practical industrial process.

By combining the multiple-beamlet array of the MMRL with individual FIB beamlets, Leung hopes to produce an even more versatile machine, the Maskless Nanobeam Lithographer, in which self-focusing beamlets can produce "dot matrix" arrays and can also be used with moving substrates, allowing patterns to be inscribed without distortion on very large flat substrates as well as on curved surfaces.

Ion beam lithography is one of several responses to the challenges posed by Moore’s Law, the assumption that the density of devices on a chip will double roughly every year and a half. Other techniques to keep this so-called "law" in force as long as possible are also being developed at Berkeley Lab, including using electron beams and extreme ultraviolet light to project mask patterns onto the wafer.

"Resist" layers and subsequent etching are needed to transfer mask patterns in this way, however. One of the unique features of ion beams is their ability to define features without using resists.

"Of all the types of particles – photons, electrons, ions – which are employed in lithography, ions have the shortest effective wavelength," says Tsu-Jae King, "so that in principle they achieve the smallest features."

AFRD’s Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group is taking advantage of the special nature of ions in machines that are among the leading contenders for the next generation of integrated-circuit lithography technology.

For more on the Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group see

Bike to Work, But Don't Gamble With Your Life

By Lisa Gonzales

Just as she did every other morning, last November Sherie Reineman left her home in Vallejo, biking on the first leg of her commute to Berkeley Lab. That day, however, she never made it: half a mile from the Vallejo transit bus stop she was struck by a car. The driver had stopped at a Benicia Road intersection and Sherie, having the right of way, was moving forward when the driver suddenly made an unsafe left turn and broadsided her. She was knocked to the asphalt, and pieces of her bike were sent flying in a 20-foot radius.

"My head bounced three times," Sherie said. "If I wasn’t wearing a helmet, my brains could have been all over the sidewalk." As it is, she was left with extensive joint, nerve, and deep tissue damage to her back, which has yet to heal.

"It’s so important that cyclists practice extreme caution," she emphasizes, "because we are so much more vulnerable on our bikes."

As we enter the season of wet weather and early sunsets, it’s a good time to remind ourselves – bikers and drivers alike – of the relevance of bicycle safety, particularly given the steep terrain and tight curves here at the Lab.

"It’s important that the traffic responsibility is shared by all," says Don Van Acker, group manager for Safety Engineering in EH&S. He points out that while there are fewer bike riders in the winter months, they face extra danger due to conditions such as rain, oil (both from cars and the eucalyptus trees), mud, vegetative debris, and early darkness. These conditions and the speeds that can be achieved going down the hills make for a very dangerous combination.

Says Matt Kotowski of EH&S, "The biggest safety problem for cyclists is going too fast down the hills." In fact, he says, three out of the five bicycle accidents reported to EH&S since 1995 are related to excessive speed.

"We’ve clocked cyclists going as fast as 33 mph," says Jim Breckinridge of Burns Security. That speed was registered by his radar gun on the narrow road behind Bldg. 90, where the speed limit is 15 mph. Breckinridge points out that bikes must abide by the same rules as cars, especially when it comes to posted speed limit, and that cyclists can receive citations just as car drivers do.

A very basic rule for bicycle safety is to always wear a helmet. Although only those under 18 years of age are required to do so by law, 75 percent of bicycle accident fatalities are due to head injuries, according to the Bicycle Safety Institute. In one Lab accident, Kotowski said, the cyclist was saved by his helmet after hitting a pothole and being thrown 60 feet.

Steve Greenberg, president of Berkeley Lab’s Bicycle Coalition, points out that because of high speeds riders need to make sure that their brakes are always in good shape and well maintained. Furthermore, since braking on slippery surfaces, curves, and steep downgrades requires additional skill and care, cyclists are advised to work on braking techniques appropriate to these conditions.

Given the reduced visibility this time of year, cyclists also need to pay special attention to lights. Van Acker has recently received several reports of close calls between cyclists and motor vehicles due to bikes not being equipped with lights. "There’s just not a lot of lighting up here," he says, "so bikes aren’t seen as well as they are in the city."

Bruce Nordman, treasurer of the Bicycle Coalition, suggests cyclists use both a red flashing rear light and a front white light.

"The front light is more expensive, but it makes you visible to cars and helps you to see obstacles ahead with enough time to react safely," an important consideration since cyclists are vulnerable to the slightest debris in the road. For this reason, the Bicycle Coalition also recommends that cyclists "take the lane" – that is, ride in the center of the lane – when safety conditions warrant it. Things to consider when taking the lane are dross on the side of the road, parked cars whose doors can open unexpectedly and deliver what is known as a "door prize," and not enough clearance for a car to pass safely.

"The Lab has been pretty successful in addressing bike safety and encouraging people to ride their bikes up here," says Steve Greenberg. Not only are there more parking and showers, but there are also bike racks on both the front and back of the shuttle buses in order to accommodate more cyclists.

Yet there are safety issues to consider with the shuttle buses as well. "People with bikes need to make sure the bus drivers know that they are loading or unloading bikes," says Tammy Brown, the bus supervisor. The drivers are not always clear about this, especially when riders use the rack at the back of the bus. Brown also points out that the bikes should be loaded on by the rear wheel and secured with bungee cords when on the back rack.

Bike safety is also the responsibility of all motorists who drive vehicles on the Hill. "Cars should be extra cautious approaching a bike," says Jim Breckinridge, "since all it takes is a rock or a pine cone for a rider to get thrown."

EH&S advises anyone who happens to notice hazardous road conditions, such as a fallen branch or a mudslick, to call the Work Request Center at X6274 and then follow up by contacting the divisional EH&S liaison, if needed. Another option is to contact a security officer at Blackberry Gate (X5472) who will then make the necessary arrangements.

In the event of an emergency, follow the Emergency Response Guide: call X7911 or 9-911.

For more information about bike safety or bicycling at the Lab, see the Bicycle Coalition’s website at

Bike Safety Tips


  • Wear light-colored clothes at night and bright-colored clothes during the day.
  • Use lights and reflectors at night.
  • Avoid unlit streets at night.
  • Remember that even when drivers seem to look directly at you they may not see you.
Lane Position
  • Ride far enough out into the lane to avoid being hit by an opening door.
  • If the lane is too narrow for cars to pass safely, ride in the center of the lane.
  • Use the proper lane for turns and avoid using a right-turn-only lane when riding straight ahead.


  • Always ride with, not against, the traffic.
  • Follow right-of-way rules.
  • Yield to pedestrians.
  • Look both ways and signal before turning.
  • Drive in single file.
  • Obey traffic signs, signals, and pavement markings, just as drivers do.
  • Never ride faster than is safe.
  • Learn to brake properly and remember that braking on slippery surfaces, curves, and steep downgrades requires additional skill and care.
  • Check break pads for wear.

Road Conditions

  • Take into consideration road and weather conditions, as well as your bicycle-riding capabilities.
  • Be aware of road hazards.
  • Cross drainage grates at right angles.

Required Equipment

If you ride at night you are required by state law and University rules to have:

  • Pedal and other reflectors
  • Headlight which emits a white light

Optional Bicycle Equipment

  • Helmet
  • Rear lights
  • Reflective equipment
  • Rain gear
  • Rearview mirror
For more information on safety tips and California and UC cylcing laws and regulations, consult the UC Bike Book, available at from the Bike Coalition at Berkeley Lab.

Addressing Climate Change

Berkeley Lab contributes to five-lab report

Researchers from five national laboratories, including Berkeley Lab, have issued a major report that finds that the United States can make impressive strides toward addressing climate change through the implementation of smart policies and technologies.

"Scenarios for a Clean Energy Future" assesses technologies and policies to meet energy-related challenges facing the United States, and concludes that their successful implementation could reduce greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, oil dependence, and economic inefficiencies – at costs comparable to the economic benefits derived by these policies.

"While previous studies have established the technical potential for significantly cutting greenhouse gases and enhancing energy security, this study shows the ability of policies to help realize this potential," said Marilyn Brown, deputy director of Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy program.

Two chapters of the report were prepared by Berkeley Lab authors in the Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Jonathan Koomey, Carrie Webber and Celina Atkinson authored the section on buildings in collaboration with Andrew Nicholls and Brad Holloman of Pacific Northwest National Lab. The chapter on industry was written by EETD’s Ernst Worrell and Lynn Price.

Koomey, along with Etan Gumerman and Cooper Richey, also conducted modeling work integrating data from buildings, industry, transportation, and electricity, as well as economic cost calculations. An analysis of the macroeconomic impacts of the policies listed in the study was conducted by Alan Sanstead in collaboration with scientists at UC Santa Barbara and Argonne National Lab. The chapter on industry also drew on research conducted by Norma Anglani, Dan Einstein, Marta Khrushch, Nathan Martin, and Dian Phylipsen.

Global climate change threatens to impose significant long-term costs from increasing temperatures, rising sea levels and more extreme weather. Despite ongoing efforts to improve air quality, air pollution from burning hydrocarbons continues to cause high levels of respiratory illnesses, acid rain and photochemical smog. Also feared by many is the possibility of electricity outages, power disturbances and energy price hikes that could dampen U.S. productivity.

The five-lab report examined hundreds of technologies and 50 policies. In terms of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, key policies listed include increased research and development, voluntary agreements to promote energy efficiency in vehicles, buildings and industrial processes, enhanced appliance efficiency standards, a domestic carbon cap and trading system, and electric industry restructuring.

Researchers across the country have joined forces to provide information that will guide national and international policy decisions concerning climate change. The research pictured here by a UC Berkeley scientist uses the advanced climate modeling capabilities at NERSC and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) to explore the mutual interaction between the carbon cycle and climate.

The study used a scenario-based approach to examine public policies aimed at address potential problems caused by global climate change. The scenarios were developed through discussions with representatives of business, universities, nonprofit organizations and government to provide a broad range of opinions.

The report provides a framework for understanding the advantages and disadvantages of the various policy alternatives, but offers no policy recommendations.

The most advanced scenario finds that by the year 2010, the United States could bring its carbon dioxide emissions three-quarters of the way back to 1990 levels. These reductions would come from every sector of the economy.

To meet the U.S. Kyoto Protocol goal of reducing greenhouse emissions to 7 percent below 1990 levels by 2010, additional measures would be needed, such as international carbon trading, reductions in other greenhouse gases and stronger domestic policies.

Over time, the report concludes, energy-bill savings in these scenarios could pay for the investments needed to achieve the reported reductions in energy use and associated greenhouse gas emissions.

The report was commissioned by DOE’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. In addition to Berkeley Lab, participating labs were the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Argonne, Oak Ridge, and Pacific Northwest national laboratories.

The report is posted online at

Genome Institute Board Selected

A distinguished eight-member panel has been announced by Berkeley Lab Director Charles Shank to oversee the future direction of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Joint Genome Institute (JGI) in Walnut Creek.

The JGI Policy Board, which is appointed by and reports to the three directors of the participating University of California laboratories, is charged with providing scientific and executive-level advice regarding the overall JGI program. It will pay particular attention to issues in resource utilization and long range planning.

The JGI, established in 1996, is a consortium of scientists, engineers and support staff from the Berkeley, Livermore, and Los Alamos national laboratories. The JGI has assumed a key role in the international effort to determine all 3 billion base pairs ("letters") that comprise the human genome.

This worldwide project, the largest biological undertaking in history, promises untold opportunities to understand the basic molecular underpinnings of life and to improve human health.

The members of the new Policy Board are:

  • Stephen P. A. Fodor, chief technical officer of Affymetrix, a micro array company in Santa Clara

  • Elaine Fuchs, Amgen Professor at the Departments of Molecular Genetics & Cell Biology and Biochemistry & Molecular Biology at the University of Chicago

  • David Galas, chief academic officer of the Keck Graduate Institute and a member of the Claremont Colleges in Claremont, California

  • Richard Gibbs, director of the Human Genome Sequencing Center and Wofford Cain Professor at the Department of Molecular and Human Genetics in the Alkek Graduate School, Baylor College of Medicine

  • Richard P. Lifton, chairman of the Genetics Department, associate investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and professor of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry and Internal Medicine Nephrology at Yale University

  • Gerald M. Rubin, former head of the Drosophila Genome program at Berkeley Lab and now vice president for Biomedical Research at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute in Chevy Chase, Maryland

  • Randall W. Scott, president of InCyte Genomics, Inc., of Palo Alto

  • James D. Watkins, Nobel Laureate for the discovery of the double-helix structure of DNA and the current president of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in New York. — Ron Kolb

Search Committee Formed for Klaus Berkner Successor as Deputy Director of Operations

The search has begun for a successor to Berkeley Lab’s deputy director for operations, Klaus Berkner, who recently announced his retirement, effective April 2, after serving for 10 years as the Lab’s top administrative official.

Laboratory Director Charles Shank has chosen a panel of senior managers to lead the search. The committee includes:

  • Physics Division Director James Siegrist, who will chair the group;
  • Associate Laboratory Director and Life Sciences Division Director Mina Bissell;
  • Former UC Senior Vice President for Business and Finance Wayne Kennedy;
  • Environmental Energy Technologies Division Director Mark Levine;
  • Vice Chancellor for Business Services Horace Mitchell of UC Berkeley;
  • Ewan Paterson, Associate Director of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center;
  • NERSC Division Director Horst Simon of Berkeley Lab; and
  • Laboratory Chief Financial Officer William Wasson.

The deputy director serves as a member of the Laboratory’s top management team, manages a budget of $150 million and a workforce of 1,300, and represents the Laboratory internally and externally.

The operations organization is comprised of a wide range of support services, including Engineering and Technical Services; Environment, Health, and Safety; Facilities; Finance; Human Resources; Administrative Services; and Internal Audit.

The committee is seeking candidates with significant experience in leading and managing scientific research programs or projects, and senior management responsibility in a mission-oriented research and development institution.

Also essential will be the ability to lead and manage support functions in a way that enables scientific excellence. Knowledge of policy, planning, and technical activities within the Department of Energy complex is also important.

Nominations should be sent to Cynthia Coolahan at Mail Stop 937-0600.

Washington Report

Dresselhaus Says Capitol Hill Has Forgotten About Fusion

The civilian fusion research community must do a better job of explaining its success stories to Congress if it is to secure the double-digit percentage increases in funding seen by other science programs, DOE Science Director Mildred Dresselhaus said at a recent meeting of the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC).

"There haven’t been any recent success stories, so Congress has forgotten about us," Dresselhaus said.

As a result, the Office of Fusion Energy Science (OFES) received $255 million for the current fiscal year, a relatively modest $7.7-million rise from the previous budget cycle. That lack of interest, Dresselhaus maintained, has affected not only fusion but the physical sciences in general. "We’ve lost the world lead in physical sciences. The best we can hope to do is be among the leaders."

In order to persuade Congress of the importance of fusion R&D, Dresselhaus suggested OFES prepare a report that compares the United States to nations such as Japan when it comes to activity in that field. She also urged FESAC members, many of whom are from DOE national labs, to work more closely with researchers from other agencies.

"Isolation is not a good thing for this field," she said. "If the fusion community is going in different directions, it will be hard to make a coherent argument for funding increases."

DOE Science Communications Should Be Separate from Secretary’s Speeches

Rick Borchelt from DOE’s Office of Science wants to improve the public outreach effort of his office and raise the visibility of all national laboratories. One possible approach to achieving this goal is for DOE to separate news that involves the Secretary of Energy from science-related press releases. Such a move, he argues, would help improve the viability of information coming from DOE headquarters.

"The best practices in science and technology communications come from universities which have separate offices for communications involving the president and science," Borchelt told members of the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee. "The press offices for the secretary and science would still communicate with each other, but they would manage their portfolios separately."

Press releases on science would gain credibility if they were issued from a press office other than the one responsible for handling the secretary’s statements, Borchelt said, and could help DOE work better with both the general and science media. Too much time and energy has been expended trying to get the Washington Post and the New York Times to write about scientific advances, he said. This effort might be better spent forging working relationships with journals such as Science and Nature.

Borchelt also said DOE should consider funding research projects that would encourage public interest in science.

Health Physicists Meet at Berkeley Lab

Robert Fairchild of EH&S points to the Gammasphere during a tour by health physicists hosted by Berkeley Lab on Nov. 15. The group represents regional chapters of the Health Physics Society, the American Industrial Hygiene Association, and the American Society of Safety Engineers. Said SLAC President Michael Grissom, president-elect of the Northern California chapter of the Health Physics Society, "Joint meetings, particularly of the high quality seen at LBNL this year, can only help promote the vision of a greater safety-related community where professionals from different backgrounds come together to mutually address the needs for hazards identification and workplace monitoring… at our national laboratories." Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt

Cyber Tycoon to Fund New Science Foundation

Computer industry titan Gordon Moore and his wife, Betty, have announced they are creating a $5 billion-plus foundation to support scientific research, conservation and higher education. Once fully funded within a few years, the foundation is expected to rank among the dozen largest charities based in the United States.

Moore, the 70-year-old co-founder of Intel Corp., is known for his observation that computer processing power doubles every 18 to 24 months. Moore’s Law became a buzzword in the computer industry, and Moore’s net worth has mushroomed to nearly $15 billion. Now the Moores want to share their new-economy wealth.

"Gordon is fairly passionate about looking for higher risk research projects that would not normally be funded by the National Science Foundation or the National Institutes of Health," says Lewis Coleman, chair of the Bank of America Investment Services Inc., who will become president of the Moore’s San Francisco-based foundation early next year.

A Wow! Approach to Improving Worker Safety

By Paul Preuss

Have you seen those live-action cartoons, complete with speech balloons, of workers getting themselves into dangerous situations while their coworkers try to help out – sometimes a little too late?

These instructive scenarios, the creations of custodian Janice Sexson and bus driver Penny White in the Facilities Department, are one of the more entertaining facets of Workers Observing Workers (WOW), a safety program now in its fourth year that expects to significantly reduce accident rates and workers’ compensation costs.

WOW’s strategy is well expressed by its title: workers are rated for safety by their fellow workers, not by supervisors or outsiders. "It’s the secret to success," says Bob Martin, chair of the WOW Steering Committee. "The program is run by the employees. We’re supported by management, but it’s not a top-down process."

After intensive training, a volunteer becomes a safety coach. "The training lasts three days, with two hours of classes each day," Martin says. "The new coach learns the history of our safety efforts, what behaviors have been the root causes of accidents, and spends time in the field with the instructor."

He or she then approaches other workers on a one-to-one basis and asks permission to observe their work practice. "This is not a stealth program," Martin remarks.

Unless there is an eminent safety hazard – in which case operations are immediately shut down – the coach observes the worker for 15 or 20 minutes without comment. Together they go over a checklist, derived from at-risk behaviors identified in studies of real accidents.

Martin emphasizes that "the first thing we look for and talk about are safe behaviors: ‘I see you were wearing your safety glasses, your work boots,’ and so on." The point is to positively reinforce good practice.

Then risky behaviors are discussed, for example, "I notice you have your gloves, but you didn’t wear them. Why is that?" In this way, not only can a worker’s practice be corrected, but wider problems – such as not having enough of the right kind of gloves in Stores – are identified as well.

"The only name on these checklists is the coach’s," Martin explains. "None of this ever goes to a supervisor." The lists eventually do go to a computer, however, which counts up at-risk behaviors and helps the Steering Committee refine its checklists and plan new strategies.

The Steering Committee meets regularly and is set up to encourage wide participation both within and outside the Facilities Department. The chair and vice chair serve for a year, then the vice chair becomes chair; Janice Sexson will soon take over from Bob Martin.

The committee also includes a management liaison person, currently Bill Birbeck of the Environmental Health and Safety Division. To develop expertise in safety for office workers, the Steering Committee has been expanded to include members from Administrative Services, and other groups will be asked to join in. "WOW is slated to grow Lab-wide," says Martin.

WOW’s influence extends to other DOE national labs as well. Recently Martin and trainer Bob Tackitt returned from a meeting at Los Alamos to discuss safety programs which, like Berkeley Lab’s, are based on the Behavioral Accident Prevention Process pioneered by Behavioral Science Technology, Inc., of Ojai, California. With the understanding that each organization must trust its workers to develop their own programs, WOW was considered an excellent model.

For more about WOW, see the WOW bulletin boards in buildings 50A, 69, 76, and 90.

WOW bulletin boards carry safety awareness into the holidays.

DOE Plans to Shut Fast Flux Reactor

The U.S. Department of Energy has announced plans to permanently shut down the Hanford Fast Flux Test Facility. According to DOE Nuclear Energy Director William Magwood IV, the department has decided to deactivate FFTF mainly because it appeared that proposed future missions for the facility did not justify restarting the reactor, which is currently on cold standby.

Those missions included nuclear R&D and production of Plutonium-238 for future space exploration and medical isotopes.

Computer Corner: Lab Offers Automatic PC Backup Service

For a small fee, Berkeley Lab employees can have access to regular, professional backups of the data on their PCs, thanks to a service which delivers an Internet-based data protection service for PCs at the Lab.

The service, provided by Connected Corporation, supports desktop and laptop computers by automatically capturing and encrypting data on a user's machine and transferring it via an Internet (IP) connection. The data is stored offsite on secure data centers operated by Connected.

If you cannot do your own backups on a regularly basis and have valuable data you need to protect, you may want to consider this option.

The initial setup fee is $50 and the service costs $25 per month thereafter. For more information call the Help Desk at X4357 or see the website at

Bone Marrow Drive: Help Esther Kwoh

Esther Kwoh, the 16-year-old daughter of Ely (Xing) Kwoh, a long-time employee in the Life Sciences Division, was diagnosed with Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML) earlier this year and is now in need for a bone marrow transfer.

To help Esther and other leukemia patients, a bone marrow drive is being held on Tuesday, Dec. 12 from 1 to 5 in Bldg. 84, Room 202. Bone marrow donors need to enroll in the National Marrow Donor Program. A simple blood test is all that is needed to be entered in the program, and the procedure itself takes less than five minutes. And by going though the Red Cross, the testing of the bone marrow will be done for free.

Esther is Chinese American, and the number of donors of Asian descent is extremely underrepresented. Since 97.5 percent of leukemia patients find matches within their own ethnic group, donors of Asian/Pacific Islander, Asian Indian, African American, Hispanic, Latino, and American Indian/Alaska Native descent are especially needed. It is of critical importance to increase the size of these registries. Many lives are at stake.

Please consider doing something for Esther and for leukemia patients from other underrepresented groups.

The American Red Cross is coordinating the drive with members of Priscilla Cooper’s laboratory in the Life Sciences Division.

For more information, please contact Priscilla Cooper at [email protected] or call Sophia at X6113.

Bulletin Board

Berkeley Lab Craft Fair 2000

Hall of Science Gift Fair

Get a head start on your holiday gift buying with science-oriented gifts from the Lawr-ence Hall of Science museum store, which will feature a sale in the cafeteria lobby on Tuesday, Dec. 5 at 11:30 a.m. The Employee Activities Association is sponsoring the event.

Featured will be fun and educational gifts for all ages. Discount coupons for the Hall of Science will be offered with each purchase of $10 or more.

Jewelry Sale

"Karats, The Gold People" will feature another jewelry sale in the cafeteria lobby on Thursday, Dec. 7 from 8 a.m. to 2 p.m. Karats offers a large selection of fine gold rings, bracelets, earrings, chains, gemstones, and more. Laboratory employees will be offered pricing below retail.

Currents Holiday Publication Schedule

Because of the holiday break, Currents will skip one issue and not publish on Dec. 29. The first issue of 2001 will be Jan. 12.

Please make a note for all submission deadlines, calendar items and Flea Market ads. Thank you.

Macintosh Users Group December Meeting
Tuesday, Dec. 5

Apple Computer will demonstrate the nuts and bolts of OS X Beta at LBNL MUG’s December meeting, to be held from 2 to 4 p.m. in Bldg. 90-3148. (Please take note of the changed time and date from the normal meeting schedule.)

OS X Beta is based on Mach 3.0 from Carnegie-Mellon University and FreeBSD 3.2, derived from UC Berkeley’s BSD 4.4-Lite. It includes technologies such as industry-standard BSD networking stack (TCP/IP), protected memory, preemptive multitasking, and UNIX style virtual memory. The demonstration will elaborate on the new GUI "Aqua" and graphic system based on Post Script, PDF, and Open GL.

Other topics to be discussed are security, networking, JAVA, and the classic Mac OS environment. A question and answer session will follow. Refreshments will be provided thanks to a generous donation from several members of the Mac Users Group.

Daughter of Lab Employee Wins Poster Contest


Eighth-grader Alexandra Ellman won first prize in her age group of a nationwide poster contest sponsored by the Office of the Federal Environmental Executive (OFEE) and America Recycles Day, Inc., a non-profit organization of government officials, environmental organizations, and manufacturing industries.

The contest – open to children of federal employees and government contractors – was intended to generate public awareness about recycling and buying recycled products

The daughter of Marlene Henriquez of the Physical Biosciences Division, Alexandra previously won another poster contest on recycling when she was in the fifth grade.

"I am so proud of her," beams Henriquez. "Alexandra succeeds in everything she tries, but what is most important to me is that she always challenges herself."

Students from grades K through 12 participated in the poster contest, submitting hand-drawn artwork on recycled paper.

Organizers at Berkeley Lab picked one winning poster from each grade level, which was then forwarded to the national contest. Entries were evaluated on the basis of appeal, theme, content, and drawing skill.

Alexandra’s drawing will appear in the OFEE’s "America Recycles Day 2001" calendar that will be distributed at no charge to federal, state and local organizations, as well as to the general public. She will attend an awards ceremony at the White House at the end of January 2001.

New Dance Series: West Coast Swing

A new four-session dance instruction series will begin on Monday, Dec. 4 in Bldg. 64 (High Bay). Classes are held from 12 to 1 p.m. and will continue for three consecutive Mondays, skipping the holiday period (classes on Dec. 11, Dec. 18, and Jan. 8).

The cost is $6 per class or $20 for the full series. Free practice sessions are held at the same location on Wednesdays at noon. For more information contact Joy Kono at X6375 or Sharon Fujimara at X4991.

Toy & Food Drive

Berkeley Lab’s annual drive to collect toys, food and now coats to be donated to local charities continues through Dec. 19. Donation areas are located in the lobbies of the cafeteria, Bldg. 90, Bldg. 937, and Bldg. 62.

Pick Up New Parking Permit

Site Access asks that career employees who did not receive their new permit the week of Nov. 13-17 come to the Badge Office in Bldg. 65 and exchange their permit as soon as possible. Please make sure to bring the old permit to exchange for the new the new one. The deadline is Dec. 21.


General Interest

DECEMBER 4, Monday

11:30 — 12:40 cafeteria parking lot
Dance Series Starts
Noon, Bldg. 64 - High Bay

DECEMBER 5, Tuesday

11:30 a.m., cafeteria lobby
Mac Users Group Meeting
2 - 4 p.m., 90-3148

DECEMBER 7, Thursday

8 a.m. - 2 p.m., cafeteria

7:30 - 3:30, cafeteria parking lot

Send us your announcements

Announcements for the General Calendar and Bulletin Board page may be sent to MSFriedlander@ Seminar & Lectures items may be mailed to currents_ [email protected]. You may also fax items to X6641 or mail them to Bldg. 65B. The deadline for the Dec. 15 issue is 5 p.m. Monday, Nov. 11.

Seminars & Lectures

DECEMBER 1, Friday

Cavitation Implosions as a Path to Fusion: Potential, Experimental Difficulties, and Simulations
Speakers: Ross Tessien and Felipe Gaitan, Impulse Devices, Inc.
10:30 a.m., Bldg. 71 conference room

DECEMBER 4, Monday

Life in Solid Ice?
Speaker: P. Buford Price, UCB Physics Department
4:30 p.m., 1 LeConte Hall

DECEMBER 6, Wednesday

Activation and Termination of Signal Transduction Through the Erythropoietin Receptor
Speaker: Ursula Klingmuller, Max-Planck-Institute of Immunobiology
4 p.m., Bldg. 84-318

DECEMBER 7, Thursday

Recent Results from the Chandra X-ray Observatory
Speaker: Harvey Tanenbaum, NASA
4 p.m., Bldg. 50A-5132

DECEMBER 14, Thursday

Mechanical Integrin Stressing Controls Signaling and Biological Responses in Osteoblasts
Speaker: Joachim Rychly, University of Rostock
10:30 a.m., Bldg 84-318

Visions of Very Large Hadron Colliders at FNAL
Speaker: Peter Limon, FNAL
4 p.m., Bldg. 50B-4205

EH&S Classes – December 2000







EHS 256

Lockout/Tagout (LO/TO)

10:0 —11:30



EHS 739


10:0 —11:00



EHS 730

Medical /Biohazardous Waste




EHS 116

First Aid

8:30 — 12:30



EHS 260

Basic Electrical Hazard Awareness

1:00 — 2:30



EHS 400

Radiation Protection-Fundamentals

9:00 — 12:00



EHS 432

Radiation Protection-Lab Safety

9:00 — 12:00



EHS 280

Laser Safety

1:00 — 4:00



EHS 10

Introduction to EH&S at LBNL

8:30 — 10:15



EHS 123

Adult CPR

8:30 — 12:00



EHS 154

Building Emergency Team

9:00 — 11:00



EHS 348

Chemical Hygiene/Safety

9:30 — 12:00



EHS 231

Compressed Gas Safety

1:00 — 3:00



EHS 275

Confined Space Hazards

9:00 — 10:30



EHS 330

Lead Hazard Awareness

11:00 —12:00



EHS 604

Hazardous Waste Generators

9:30 — 11:00



EHS 622

Radioactive/Mixed Waste Generators

11:00 —12:00



EHS 530

Fire Extinguisher Safety

10:00 —11:30


* Includes EHS 392/405, followed by the orientation. Please arrive at 8:15 for sign-in.

For more information or to enroll, contact Susan Aberg at [email protected] or enroll via the web at Preregistration is required for all courses except EHS 10 (Introduction to EH&S). Times and locations are subject to change. For a full, updated schedule of EH&S training sessions see

Math, Puzzles, Games and Ernest Lawrence to Boot

During the month of December visitors to the Hall of Science can explore the world of mathematics with "Math Around the World" a new LHS exhibit featuring a multitude of games played for centuries around the world, such as Nim, Hex, Kalah, Game Sticks, Shongo Networks and many more.

Also featured at the LHS are hands-on puzzles and activities for all ages, such as building, counting, and weighing.

An exhibit on the human brain explores the changes our brain goes through when we try out activities such as magnetic mazes, constructing stories, and matching sounds. Visitors can use computers to journey into the inner space of the brain, examine MRI images, and meet brain researchers via computer videos.

Other ongoing exhibits include an exhibit chronicling the work of Berkeley Lab founder Ernest O. Lawrence; earthquake displays, including a working seismic recorder; and a "Gravity Wall," exploring science and technology during Columbus’ time in the Europe and the Americas.

For more information on these and other LHS activities, call 642-5132.

Flea Market

Autos / Supplies

‘96 TOYOTA CAMRY, 4 dr, 4 cyl, LE, 40K mi, exc cond, $12,300, Steve X7855, (925) 682-6008

‘94 CHEVY CAVALIER RS, auto, ac, am/fm/cass, purple, 79K mi, good running cond, $3,500, Sangyong, X5466, 524-6565

‘88 AUDI 80 Quattro, 137K mi, full-time 4WD, grey, ac, sunroof, $2,700, Damir, X5346, 547-7896

‘85 BMW 325E COUPE, sunrf, pwr win, 5 spd, good cond, $2,500/bo, Sue, X6395

TRUCK CAMPER, coachman, sleeps 3, lp gas range, ice box, porta potti, 110 v hookup, exc cond, best offer, Loren, X7729, 799-7041

ALLOY WHEELS for 1989 BMW 535i series, $30, Sherry, X6972, 543-5995


ALBANY, temp housing, 3 bdrm apt, 12/15/00 - 01/29/01, $500, Jens, X6174, 524-7216

OAKLAND HILLS, 1 bdrm/1 bth condo, fireplace, gas stove, dw, refrigerator, w/d, top floor, high ceiling, balcony, parking, pool, sauna, exercise rm, close to freeway, easy access to SF, Walnut Creek and Berkeley, bus to SF, no smoking/pets, $1,325/mo, 1-yr lease, water/garbage paid, Shelmay, 540-7288

Housing Wanted

VISITING RESEARCHER from Japan w/ family seeks 2-bdrm house/apt, 3/1 — 9/30, Yoshiyuki Shimoda, [email protected], telephone: ++81-727-82-3223, or contact Mary Ann at the Energy Analysis Dept, X7437

VISITING SCHOLAR from Japan at LBNL for 1 year beginning 1/2/01 seeking 1 or 2 bdrm apt near Lab, has small dog, Jane, X6036

Misc Items for Sale

CHAISE LOUNGE, handsome, striped, barely used, $350/bo, can email photo, Barbara, X4832 am, X4589 pm, 652-7044

CHRISTMAS TREE SKIRT, hand quilted w/ handmade storage bag, new $20/bo; garment bag w/ leather trim, exc cond, $15; cardioglide exercise machine, used 4 times, $35/bo, Sherry, X6972, 543-5995

DOUBLE-SIZE BED incl matt & box, 4 yrs old, very clean, $70, Chris, X6901

MOVING SALE, 2 lge desks, $15/$10; computer desk, $8; 2 bookcases, $15/ea; 2 office chairs, $15/ea; floor lamp/table lamp, $5/$15; Maytag heavy duty washer, 3 yrs old, $200; TV stand, $5, Sangyong, X5466, 524-6565

PORTABLE LAUNDRY hanger rack, $15; foldable laundry drying rack, $10; 2 green plastic garden chairs, $10, Jan, X6676, 843 2224

SONY DISCMAN portable CD player, anti-skip protection, digital mega bass, comes w/ car kit, good cond, $30, Olivia, X4182, 233-1088 eves

TWO MACINTOSH PERFORMA comps (w/ monitors, cd, modem), $90-130/bo; skis (160 & 180cm) $80/bo; boots (child 3 & lady 7*, 8*), $25-45; misc child's ski clothes (bibs, jackets), $5-15; child's pool table, $25, Stu, X7474, 525-2367


TAHOE KEYS at S. Lake Tahoe, 3 bdrm house, 2-1/2 bth, fenced yard, quiet, sunny, close to attractions, prvt dock, great view, $150/night, 2 night min, Bob, (925)376-2211

Flea Market Policy

Ads are accepted only from LBNL employees, retirees, and onsite DOE personnel. Only items of your own personal property may be offered for sale.

Submissions must include name, affiliation, extension, and home phone number. Ads must be submitted in writing: via e-mail ([email protected]), fax (X6641), or delivered/mailed to Bldg. 65B.

Ads run one week only unless resubmitted in writing, and are repeated only as space permits.

Currents reserves the right to edit ads for space and style. Once submitted for publication, ads may not be retracted for any reason.

Please note: For questions about the Flee Market, call X4698.

The deadline for the Dec. 15 issue Thursday, Dec. 7.